The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil

by Manfred Davidmann

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Contents

Overview
Introduction
The Days of Creation (Genesis Chapter 1)
Evolution and Evil (Genesis Chapter 2)
Evolution towards Evil (Gen 2: 1-9)
Eden's Rivers (Gen 2: 10-14)
Evolution towards Good (Gen 2: 15-25)
Meaning of the Names of God
Garden of Eden (Genesis Chapter 3)
Further Evolution towards Good (Gen 3: 1-7)
Consequences (Gen 3: 8-24)
Evolution of Human Beings (Genesis Chapters 2 and 3)
Cain and Abel (Genesis Chapter 4)
The Descendants of Seth (Genesis Chapter 5)
Concluding

Appendix 1: Names of God
Appendix 2: Creation of Planet and Life; Evolution of Human Beings
Appendix 3: 'Adam' and Hebrew Grammar

Notes and References
Notes   <..>
References   {..}

Relevant Current and Associated Works

Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview


Overview

This report is one of a series which together describe and illustrate the meaning and intent of Genesis. Each is self-contained but together they provide the knowledge needed for understanding Genesis, its allegories and their significance. These allegories illustrate and define the difference between good and evil, and the importance of behaviour on social strength, well-being and good life under modern conditions.


Genesis begins by describing how the planet was created, in other words how it was formed, the changes which occurred as the planet aged, how plants and animals were formed, evolved and populated the planet. It describes how human beings evolved and also how the behaviour of life forms changed as human beings evolved.

When the Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses) was written about 3,400 years ago, people had but little knowledge about science or evolution compared with what is known today. So concepts for which we now have precise terms were described rather than stated and expressed in religious terms so that they could be appreciated and followed by the population.

Understanding this we see that there is no conflict, no contradiction, no divergence, only awe-inspiring agreement, between what is stated in Genesis and what we now know about the evolution of human beings.

See The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil


Chapters 5 and 6 then describe the behaviour of human beings before the flood. There is no conscious knowledge of good and evil and of the difference between them and their behaviour is like that of their primitive ancestors. Their behaviour is stated and condemned as evil. These two chapters of Genesis outline evil behaviour.

Chapter 5 shows people amassing possessions and wealth and dominating others by brutal strength.
See Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time
Chapter 6 adds unrestrained sexual behaviour
See Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity
and Chapter 6 also adds the gaining and misuse of power over others.
See Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty


The flood follows and from here onwards Genesis shows a conscious knowledge developing of good and evil, stressing consequent reward and punishment, justice and retribution.

Human beings are shown to be becoming numerous and spreading out, behaving much as before the flood. Different communities developed different customs, traditions, ways of behaving and, with the life and travels of the Patriarchs, some learned to know the difference between good and evil, learned to behave humanely.
See Genesis: Differentiating Between Good and Evil
Genesis records what is, and is not, moral sexual behaviour and the consequences of depravity. Clearly stated is that the consequences cannot be avoided.
See Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity
Genesis considers the gaining and misuse of power over others. We are told the consequences of allowing some people to misuse their abilities to manipulate, control and enslave others. And the Pentateuch states social laws of behaviour and a social system which have to be kept as they enable people to gain and keep liberty and good lives of high quality.
See Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty


The abovementioned reports also summarise corresponding present social problems and describe the Pentateuch's social laws and social system for overcoming them.

Further relevant knowledge and information necessary for understanding the meaning of Genesis can be found in the following reports:

Meaning and Significance of the Names of God in Genesis
Describes the meaning and significance of the names of God which are used in Genesis. These are of greatest importance for understanding the meaning of the text of the Bible.

Meaning and Intent of Genesis: Essential Notes on Hebrew Grammar
Lists and illustrates the grammatical rules which help to differentiate between references to individuals and references to groups or life forms. Essential information for understanding the meaning of Genesis.

Bible Translations, Versions, Codes and Hidden Information in Bible and Talmud
Shows how changes made in the past have obscured the original intended meaning. Describes the ways in which hidden information has been encoded and labelled so that its original meaning could not be misunderstood or misinterpreted.


Introduction

When the Pentateuch was written, people had but little knowledge about science or evolution compared with what is known today. So concepts for which we now have precise terms were described rather than stated.

Instead of the term 'scientific law' being used, for example, we see described that 'what is written applies to all people, present or absent, past or future, will happen regardless of how one feels about it, that the results of certain actions are reversed if the actions are reversed'. <1>

And concepts and descriptions are expressed in religious terms so that they could be appreciated and followed by the population.

The abovementioned example of the 'scientific law' illustrates the immense knowledge and understanding which underlies the Pentateuch (of which Genesis is a part) and which could not have been understood or comprehended by those then living. And what is there has been overlaid with the dust of millennia, with accumulated interpretations and comments limited by the then current knowledge, understanding and misconceptions. What is stated in Genesis is thus much more meaningful than is generally appreciated.

So we can expect the text of Genesis to be describing and disclosing what are currently known to be scientific truths in a way which could be understood by those living at the time, using religious language and the words then available.


Hence we can take it that in Genesis the then-beyond-comprehension beginning of life on earth and its evolutionary progress towards humankind is being described to people to whom terms such as 'natural selection' were completely unknown. Every evolutionary change, every new life form, is an act of creation.

And Genesis records 'God' to be that which caused and generated the beginning and development of life on this planet and of its development from the first bacteria to humankind. What we have at the beginning of Genesis is a description of how life developed on this planet, in religious terms.

Understanding this we will see that there is no conflict, no contradiction, no divergence, only astonishing awe-inspiring agreement, between what is stated in Genesis and what we now know. <18>


Discussions between 'Creationism' and 'Evolution' barely scratch the surface of what Genesis is about. Genesis is about matters of enormous significance and importance to humankind at the present time, as you will see.

However, there were some who seemed to think that they knew all there is to be known, that they could decide what is and what is not, that what they were not aware of does not exist, that what they did not understand can not be meaningful.

And some 150 years ago there were those who wondered why God was being referred to by different names in Genesis. At that time a likely explanation appeared to be that Genesis had been written by a number of people pretending it had all been written by one person but that each author naively referred to God by a different designation. This multiauthor hypothesis has undertones of propaganda aimed at discrediting the Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses) and its benevolent social teachings, by discrediting its single-author-based religious authority. The multi-author hypothesis was disproved some time ago {2, 13}. And what you will see here is that the different designations for God are not only meaningful but extremely important. <7>


Hebrew grammar distinguishes between proper names of persons and general nouns such as 'life form'. This distinction <17> has been ignored by Bible translators. This report shows that the distinction is meaningful and needs to be made if the text is to be understood as it was intended to be understood, and that Bible translations need to be revised accordingly. <2>


On the whole and when relevant I have tried to present the information by indenting as follows:

As stated in Genesis
Explanations and comments
Current knowledge, science
Additional notes, comments and quotations

For a quick overview, read the first two, namely 'As stated in Genesis' and 'Explanations and comments'.


The Days of Creation (Genesis Chapter 1)

At the end of every stage of creation is a statement like 'There was evening and there was morning, one day.'

But the Hebrew word 'ereb' equally well means either 'evening' or else means 'to mingle', or 'not to distinguish between them'.

And the Hebrew word 'boker' equally well means either 'morning' or else means 'to search', 'to examine', possibly also 'to check carefully'.

It follows that the Hebrew statement which is being translated as
There was evening and there was morning

could equally well mean that
there was a mingling and a uniformity, and a searching for differences and an examination of differences. <2>
This second meaning is the more likely when considering the text of Genesis.

Which describes what is now known to be the basis of evolution by natural selection. Hence it appears that 'one day' refers to a stage of evolutionary advance as well as to a stage of creation.

Indeed Genesis, written about 3,400 years ago, describes in religious language the creation (evolution) of humankind, and much more, as follows.

What stands out is that the record of creation in Genesis corresponds in the major steps to the order in which planet and life are known to have been formed and developed.


Stage 1 (one day) (Gen 1: 1-5)

Creation of light. God saw the light, that it was good. God divided the light from the darkness, and called the light Day and the darkness Night. A first stage of creation and evolution had been completed and another began.

Planet earth came into existence about 4.5 billion years ago. <18>


Stage 2 (a second day) (Gen 1: 6-8)

Creation of water and sky. A second stage of creation and evolution had been completed and another began.

About 4 billion years ago there was liquid water on the planet. <18>


Stage 3 (a third day) (Gen 1: 9-13)

Creation of dry land. It happened and 'God saw that it was good.'

And then of vegetation, seed-bearing plants and seeded-fruit trees. After it happened 'God saw that it was good.'

A third stage of creation and evolution had been completed and another began.

Land began to form about 3.5 billion years ago. Largely covered with shallow water and there was almost no free oxygen. As far as we know, it was the early plant life which fixed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and gave off oxygen and so made the planet habitable for our kind of life forms. <18>


Stage 4 (a fourth day) (Gen 1: 14-19)

Sun, moon and stars created to mark days and years, to mark the passage of time, and to light the earth. And God saw that it was good. A fourth stage of creation and evolution had been completed and another began.


Stage 5 (a fifth day) (Gen 1: 20-23)

Living creatures in the water and in the air are created. After it happened, 'God saw that it was good.' They are to increase and multiply in diversity and number. A fifth stage of creation and evolution had been completed and another began.

About 600 to 700 million years ago there were softbodied multicellular animals living in the sea followed by an enormous increase in the number of life forms which appear to have included all the major categories. The land, however, was lifeless.


Stage 6 (the sixth day) (Gen 1: 24-31)

Living creatures on land (such as cattle, creeping things and beasts) are created. After it happened, 'God saw that it was good.'

About 450 million years ago plants evolved which left the water. Soil accumulated on the land. About 350 million years ago the descendants of fishes, the land vertebrates, had emerged from the sea. About 300 million years ago amphibians and reptiles populated the land.

About 200 million years ago there had emerged small mice-like mammals but reptiles dominated the planet.

By about 65 million years ago, dinosaurs had dominated the planet for something like 170 million years.

"Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. They shall have dominion over" all ... . And man (male and female) is created in God's image.

A distinction is drawn between image (to look like, referring to appearance) and likeness (with discernment and understanding) <4>. 'Man' is then created but only 'in our image', alike only in appearance.

To me this indicates that we are being told that man is to be alike in appearance to the most advanced life form when Genesis was written, namely humans, but alike only in appearance.

So Man (male and female) is to be a more advanced life form compared with other then existing life forms.

The Hebrew form of Adam used in this sentence is 'eth ha-adam' <14> indicating that what was created were 'human-like life forms' and not just one specific human being.

The Hebrew word 'Elohim' has the form of the plural. That the plural is intentional and meaningful is emphasised by the statement (Gen 1: 26) 'Let us make man in our image, ...'

And the Hebrew word 'Elohim' contains the root 'eleh' (these) which is a plural demonstrative pronoun indicating a 'multiplicity' which has some common characteristics and is thus combined into a unit. <6>

Evolution consists of a plurality of individual changes (acts of creation) which are then tried out and evaluated. It is this plurality of change which is described by referring to God in the plural. And we are told that different versions of 'man (male and female)', that is of human-like beings, were created.

They are to be fertile and increase, to fill the earth and subdue it, to be the most advanced of all living things.

Their food consists of all seed-bearing plants and all fruit-bearing fruit. All animals on land and all birds feed off the green plants.

And it was so. And God saw everything that He had made and saw it was very good.

The sixth stage of creation and evolution had been completed and another began.


Stage 7 (the seventh day) (Gen 2: 1-3)

Creation completed, God ceases from all further work like that done before and rests. No further creation. Day of rest.

The species have been formed, all is 'good' and there is no further development in this direction.

Animals evolve, are peacefully co-existing and those most suited to available food and prevailing climatic conditions survive and multiply. And all is 'good'.

Up to here all is well, all is 'good', as God intended. All animals and 'man' are plant-eating and live happily side by side.

These three sentences, the first in chapter 2 of Genesis, are the only ones in the whole of chapter 2 which refer to God as the creator of all that is good.

Possibly to alert us to the fact that what follows in chapter 2 of Genesis is a parallel development and not a continuation of chapter 1.



Evolution and Evil (Genesis Chapter 2)


Evolution towards Evil (Gen 2: 4-9)

The progress and type of evolution (creation) at one point underwent a progressive change towards beastliness (bad, evil) and it is this second form of evolution which is described in this part of Chapter 2 of Genesis.

And the text pointedly refrains from calling the evolutionary developments recorded in Chapter 2 of Genesis as being 'good'.


Genesis has so far referred to God (as creator) by the name Elohim, but now that it describes evolutionary changes it refers to God by the name 'Yhwh Elohim'.

'Yhwh' means 'He causes to be, He brings into existence' so that Yhwh Elohim refers to God who brings into existence (in the plural), to God (as originator), referring in this way to evolutionary changes. <7>

4 These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God (God as originator) made earth and heaven.

These are the generations, that is the successive development, of life itself beginning with the creation of the first life form (of the coming into existence of the first living cell) from the dust of the earth, right up to human beings.

5 No shrub of the field was yet on the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprang up; for the Lord God (God as originator) had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground;

The land was barren because there was no rain and because no-one was there to work the land.

6 but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.

About 4 billion years ago there was liquid water on the planet. <18>

Land began to form about 3.5 billion years ago. Largely covered with shallow water and there was almost no free oxygen. <18>

7 Then the Lord God (originator) formed man (Hebrew 'eth ha-adam') from the dust of the ground (Hebrew 'adamah'), and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man (Hebrew 'ha-adam') became a living soul.

The Hebrew for what has been translated as 'man' shows that it is life forms (or a life form) which are being referred to <17>. There is no mention of 'man' being in God's image or likeness and it is animals which are stated to have a 'living soul' (Gen 1: 30). So this mention of 'man' refers to the first appearance of life on earth, possibly to life in its most primitive form, to primitive life forms.

This corresponds to what we were told in Genesis (Chapter 1) about the creation of life forms. But here there is no mention of these life forms being 'good'.

About 600 to 700 million years ago there were softbodied multicellular animals living in the sea followed by an enormous increase in the number of life forms which appear to have included all the major categories. The land, however, was lifeless.

About 520 million years ago some of the animals living in the sea lived by eating others.

8 And the 'Lord God' (originator) planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed.

Hebrew 'mi-kedem' rendered as 'eastward'. It normally means 'from the east' but could also mean 'in the past'.

Gan Eden is either the proper name of a place or a place of pleasure.

So the planting had already been done in a place which was a place of pleasure at the time of planting (which had been 'good' before life forms, or some life forms, were introduced).

About 450 million years ago plants evolved which left the water. Soil accumulated on the land. Soon afterwards the animals followed.
9 And out of the ground made the 'Lord God' (originator) to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Evolution (creation) is proceeding.


When all animals feed off plants and fruit, then this is 'very good' (Gen 1: 29-31).

Some life forms (animals) live by eating other animals. Genesis pointedly does not mention this, presumably because flesh eating is permitted later (Gen 9: 2-).

At the same time, the evolutionary developments recorded here are pointedly not being called 'good'.

Some life forms (animals) live by eating other animals, are evolving towards greater viciousness and brutality. It is this which is evil. Evil is evolving towards greater evil.

There is good and evil, good and beastliness, but these life forms (animals) do not know this and cannot distinguish between them.


About 520 million years ago some animals lived by eating others and so a brutal vicious element was introduced. In due course peaceful competition for available resources became survival of the fittest where 'fittest' meant 'most brutal, most vicious, most violent, most beastly'. There are predators and prey and animals feed off their prey.

Predators have appeared and evolution turned into a bitter struggle for the survival of the fittest, where the most fittest is the most vicious and violent. The most 'advanced' species is now the species which is the most vicious. Life is brutal and dominated by evil. Reptiles come to dominate the earth.

This kind of evolution consists of changes towards greater beastliness. The evolutionary development towards greater beastliness, oppression and exploitation is thus described and defined as a parallel development, as contrary to good, as evil. 'Bad' and 'evil' are defined in this section of Genesis.


'Eden's Rivers' (Gen 2: 10-14)

10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads.

11 The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;

12 and the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium and the onyx stone.

13 And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush.

14 And the name of the third river is Tigris (Hebrew 'Hiddekel'); that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.


In these five sentences we are told about a river leaving Eden and splitting into four streams flowing to three different lands.

We are told that in the land of Havilah exist gold, bdellium and lapis lazuli, that is metal, trees and minerals. Life forms are not mentioned, neither animals nor people, and this points to their absence at that time.

The land of Cush and the place Asshur did not then exist, had not been named.

One can conclude that there were no life forms in these lands, that they were uncharted and unpopulated.


Some life forms (animals) at that time lived by eating other animals. Genesis Chapter 2 does not refer to predators as bad or evil, presumably because flesh eating is permitted later (Gen 9: 2-), but also does not refer to them as 'good' <22>.

Predators are pointedly not mentioned in Chapter 2 and so we are told about streams spreading out from Eden. What flowed out of Eden, what spread out from Eden, appear to have been primitive life forms including flesh eating predators.


Following this description of how primitive animals spread out from Eden, Chapter 2 of Genesis continues by describing the evolution of mammalian feelings and life, of hominoids and Homo erectus <23>.


And the next time the names Havilah, Cush and Asshur are mentioned, individually and together, is in Chapter 10 which details the spreading out of human beings (Homo sapiens, modern humans) after the flood. {16}

Which confirms that what spread out from Eden were primitive life forms including flesh eating predators.


About 200 million years ago there had emerged small mice-like mammals but reptiles dominated the planet.

By about 65 million years ago, dinosaurs had dominated the planet for something like 170 million years. A global change of climate apparently lasting hundreds of thousands years (apparently caused by a meteor impact and enormous volcanic outpourings) wiped out about 70 percent of all species, including the dinosaurs.

Mammals then developed and evolved.


And Chapter 2 of Genesis continues by describing the evolution of mammalian feelings and life.


Evolution towards Good (Gen 2: 15-25)

Instincts are a form of behaviour which the animal performs from birth, without being trained to do so. {7}

At the level of evolution of the reptile, behaviour relating to survival of the species, such as sexual behaviour, is instinctive and responses are automatic. Territory is acquired by force and defended. Might is right. {7}

But from about 65 million years ago, mammals developed and evolved.


15 And the 'Lord God' (originator) took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.

'man': Hebrew 'eth ha-adam' meaning life form or life forms.

16 And the Lord God (originator) commanded the man, saying: 'Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;

17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it; for in the day that you eat thereof you shall surely die.'

At this point, 'man' (life forms such as vicious reptiles) have no knowledge of good and evil and cannot distinguish between them.

'... you shall surely die.': If you evolve in direction of feeling and thinking, into knowing difference between good (peaceful coexistence and equality) and evil (bitter struggle for survival, beast eating beast) you will die as a species (life form) because you will have evolved into a more advanced life-form which will replace the earlier one.


18 And the Lord God (originator) said: 'It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him

19 And out of the ground the Lord God (originator) formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.

20 And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.

'Man' learns to communicate which enables co-operation and teamwork with another (others). And lays basis for closer associations between two or more of his own kind.

21 And the Lord God (originator) caused a deep sleep to fall over the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof.

22 And the rib, which the Lord God (originator) had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her to the man.

23 And the man said, 'This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman (Hebrew: ishshah), because she was taken out of Man.' (Hebrew: ish)

Beginning of co-operation between male and female of the same species in bearing, protecting and bringing up the young.

24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be one flesh.

Mammalian care and affection for the young and co-operation between parents (together like one person doing all) in looking after the young till they become independent adults.


25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.

'Naked' is here used for referring to sexual behaviour between primitive male and female animals engaging instinctively in sex.

Engaging instinctively in sex and forming family connections, just like eating and drinking.


As mammals evolved from reptiles, there evolved the ability for storing new experiences as they happen and so creating a store of experience-based memories. And so the experience-based recognition of danger and responding to this according to past experience. {7}

... and behaviour is less rigidly controlled by instincts. It seems that feelings such as attachment, anger and fear have emerged with associated behavioural response patterns of care, fight or flight. {7}


These verses (Gen 2: 15-25) show that the mammalian brain is evolving, with some feelings of affection and attachment from parents towards their young. So these verses say much, portraying a change from domination by the most vicious towards the emergence of feelings of affection and attachment towards others.

'Man' learns to communicate and so to co-operate with others and there is then co-operation between male and female of the species aimed at bringing up the next generation. The young are helped to maturity and then leave parents to form own family, driven to do so by instinctive sex urge.

About 3.5 million years ago hominoids, animals resembling humans, had appeared, apparently in East Africa.

Hominoids: Erect bipeds with our body shape, intermediate between apes and humans.

And about 2 million years ago appeared Homo erectus (Erect man), having a much smaller skull size than humans. {3}


Meaning of the Names of God

We have seen that the name used for referring to God clearly points to the meaning of the text. 'Elohim' referred to God as creator of what is good, 'Yhwh Elohim' referred to God as the originator of evolution.

Understanding the meaning and significance of the names by which God is referred to in the Bible is of the greatest importance for understanding the meaning of the Bible text.

And so the meaning and significance of the names of God <7> is as follows:

Hebrew Name     ELOHIM    YHWH ELOHIM    YHWH
             
Usually translated as   God   Lord God   the Lord
             
Meaning of Name   GOD or GOD (AS CREATOR).
God as creator, as creator of all that is good.
  GOD (AS ORIGINATOR)   GOD (AS CAUSE), as cause of what happened.

In other words, this is happening, is what happened.

Example: (Gen 7: 16); And they ... went in(to the ark) ... as God (Elohim) commanded him; and the Lord (Yhwh) shut him in.


Garden of Eden (Genesis Chapter 3)

We know that Homo erectus was followed and replaced by Homo sapiens (Wise man, ourselves, with considerably larger brain size), commonly referred to as humans, human beings, humanity.

And we know that the human brain evolved in three main stages {8}. Its ancient and primitive part is the innermost core reptilian brain. Next evolved the mammalian brain by adding new functions and new ways of controlling the body. Then evolved the third part of the brain, the neocortex, the grey matter, the bulk of the brain in two symmetrical hemispheres, separate but communicating. To a considerable extent it is our neocortex which enables us to behave like human beings {7} and it is the evolution of the neocortex, that is the appearance of Homo sapiens, which is recorded in Chapter 3 of Genesis.


Further Evolution towards Good (Gen 3: 1-7)

It is significant and important that in this chapter of Genesis it is only in the first seven verses that God is referred to as the creator of all that is good, is referred to as God (creator).

In this way we are told that the change (creation) recorded in this chapter of Genesis is a most important move away from the evil of 'survival of the most vicious' and towards that which is 'Good'.


1 Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord God (originator) had made. And he said to the woman: 'Has God (creator) said: You shall not eat of any tree of the garden?'

The serpent, itself a predator struggling to survive against other predators, is saying to the female mammal which has some feelings and appreciation of care and affection for her own offspring, whether God (creator of what is good) has told her not to eat from any tree.

'the woman': Hebrew 'ha-ishah', possibly meaning women in general, womankind.

2 And the woman said to the serpent; 'Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;

3 but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God (creator) has said: You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.'

It was the Lord God (originator) who had said so (Gen 2: 17) but here they are talking about a development towards 'Good' and reference is made to God (creator).

As before, at this point 'man' (life forms such as mammals) have developed feelings of care and affection towards others and some more advanced brain functions, but beyond this have no knowledge of good and evil and cannot distinguish between them.

'Neither shall you touch it': Added by her to God's command. Meaning that we are not to be concerned about, or to think about, the difference between good and evil. In other words, we are unable at this mammalian stage of development to think about right or wrong, good or evil. And a clear statement that this chapter of Genesis is about the evolution of the human brain from the mammalian brain, it being the human brain which includes the thinking part, the neocortex).

4 And the serpent said to the woman: 'You shall not surely die;

5 for God (creator) does know that in the day you eat of it, then your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as God (creator), knowing good and evil.'

As said before (Gen 2:17), to 'die' in this context means that 'if you evolve in direction of feeling and thinking, into knowing difference between good (peaceful co-existence and equality) and evil (bitter struggle for survival, beast eating beast) you will die as a species (life form) because you will have evolved into a more advanced life-form which will replace the old one.

This is what the serpent is saying.

And the increased brain capacity and the evolution of the neocortex would enable mammals in this respect to become like God the creator of what is good, that is to know the difference between good and evil.


If there is to be further development towards good then there has to be knowledge of and understanding of good and evil and of the difference between them so that people can choose between them. (From 'You shall be as God (creator), knowing good and evil' so as to choose 'good' instead of evil.)


6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he did eat.

And the mammalian brain became the human brain by adding the massive grey matter (neocortex) which envelopes most of the earlier brain and amounts to about 85 per cent of the human brain mass. {7}

This massive addition consists mostly of two hemispheres which have, on the whole, different functions and consequently behaviour is not only determined by feelings but also by knowledge, understanding and reason. {7}

For comprehensive information on how the human mind evolved and works, see {7}.

The human brain underlies free will, enabling us to decide independently what is good or evil, that is what to do or not to do.


7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles (loin-cloths).

They learned not to behave instinctively, they learned that to be human one had to control one's instinctive sexual behaviour impulses, they learned to control the sex urge.

'Naked' again refers to sexual behaviour, here to sexual behaviour of human beings.

For comprehensive information about the family and how it functions and the pressures which it faces from without and from within, see {10}.

It takes a long time to give birth (pregnancy) and to provide for upbringing of children to maturity. So sex has to be restrained to within the family (marriage). Human beings behaving humanely control the sex urge.

Clothing and modesty are preventatives of sexual stimulation. {9}


Consequences (Gen 3: 8-24)

8 And they heard the voice of the Lord God (originator) walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God (originator) amongst the trees of the garden.

9 And the Lord God (originator) called to the man, and said to him: 'Where are you?'

10 And he said: 'I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.'

Adam and Eve are shown reacting like early mammals. While reptiles dominated the earth, the early mammals had learned to hide from reptiles in the daytime and ventured out after dark.

11 And He said: 'Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded you that you should not eat?'

12 And the man said: 'The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.'

13 And the Lord God (originator) said to the woman: 'What is this you have done?' And the woman said: 'The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.'

The changes for good which are taking place are becoming apparent. The pattern of evolution is beginning to change away from vicious beastliness towards feelings of care and affection towards others backed by intellect.

And we are now told what the real-life consequences of this major advance (creation, evolution) are.


14 And the Lord God (originator) said to the serpent: 'Because you have done this, cursed are you from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life.

Human beings are advancing to a different kind of existence. Reptiles are being left behind, by comparison evolving in a different and downward direction.

'Also implying that previously serpents travelled by an alternative mode of locomotion. This is, of course, precisely true: snakes have evolved from four-legged reptilian ancestors ... . Many snakes still retain anatomical vestiges of the limbs of their ancestors.' {9}
15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; they shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise their heel.'

Women's strength is their care and affection for their young and care and concern for people. So they understand 'good' and are the enemy of beastliness, beasts, evil.

Eternal enmity between reptiles and mammals (human beings). Eternal enmity between beastly viciousness, exploitation and oppression on the one hand and humane care and affection for people on the other, eternal enmity between good and evil. And the need to struggle against beastly viciousness, exploitation and oppression.


16 To the woman He said: 'I will greatly multiply your pain and your travail; in pain you shall bring forth children; and your desire shall be to your husband, and he shall rule over you.'


'... greatly multiply your pain and your travail':

This connects the evolution of the human brain with childbirth. Childbirth became much more painful because of greater skull size.

Pregnancy, childbirth, caring for and bringing up the young takes many years until they become self-sufficient and experienced adults.


'... and your desire shall be to your husband.':

It has been suggested <4> that this refers to cohabitation. But this is mutual between male and female and so would not be mentioned only for the female.

The desire is based on need for support and protection while having children and looking after them as they grow older. And so that his cool knowledge, understanding, reasoning can strengthen, add to, and bring about gains in their mutual struggle for achieving that which is good, a humane good life for the family.

For more comprehensive information about the family and how it functions in tough social environments, and about the pressures it faces from without and from within, see {10}.

'..., and he shall rule over you.':

The husband's strength lies in struggling against external threats, in protecting, and in providing for, the family in a hostile environment.

For more information about the way in which the neocortex functions and about role of the two halves of the brain, see {7}.

One way of countering viciousness is by greater viciousness or strength. If attacked, we have to defend ourselves. Reason and evaluation can temper (add to, or change) purely emotional, instinctive behaviour (fight or flight) so as to counter and overcome external threats by, for example, co-operation and teamwork among those who are threatened.

The need to survive and overcome external threats means that husband-based decisions based on reason, evaluation and experience, may have to override more humane considerations while an emergency exists.

But the direction of husband-based decisions, like those of the wife, should be motivated by 'Good', and be in direction of 'Good'.


17 And to Adam He said: 'Because you have hearkened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you, saying: You shall not eat of it; cursed is the ground for your sake; in toil shall you eat of it all the days of your life.

18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you; and you shall eat the herb of the field.

What is clear is the functional division of work between men and women which corresponds to women looking after the young for years while men toil to provide for the family's living. A life-long struggle to provide for the family. <9>

Also clear is the correspondence between their different types of work and the two halves of the brain. One half more suited for dealing with the struggle for food and safety, the other more suited for looking after and caring for the young and thus for people. <10>


19 In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return to the ground; for out of it were you taken; for dust you are, and to dust shall you return.'

Birth and death, successive generations, are underlying basic requirement for evolutionary change by natural selection. It is because of this that the way to the 'tree of life' is barred. <20>

20 And the man called his wife's name Eve (Heb. Havvah, that is, Life); because she was the mother of all living.

'...she was the mother of all living' makes the point that from here on human beings had evolved so that Eve <21> was the mother of all living human beings.

21 And the Lord God (originator) made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.


22 And the Lord God (originator) said: 'Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever.'

23 Therefore the Lord God (originator) sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

24 So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.

Human beings are mortal.

Mortality is essential if evolution towards a better life-form, towards a better way of living, is to proceed by evolution.

Natural selection is improvement by trial and error. Immortality would end the evolution of species and of humankind towards a better life-form, towards a better way of living.

Brutal viciousness, oppression, exploitation, corruption, evil would dominate for ever if they gained the upper hand, and this cannot be allowed to happen under any circumstances.


Evolution of Human Beings (Genesis Chapters 2 and 3)

Peaceful co-existence and equality are good. Bitter struggle for survival, beast eating beast, survival of the most vicious, are evil.

Primitive life forms are told: 'If you evolve in direction of feeling and thinking, into knowing difference between good and evil, you will evolve into a more advanced life-form which will replace the old one.

And mammals evolve from reptiles, and develop feelings of care and affection towards others and develop some more advanced brain functions, but beyond this have no knowledge of good and evil and cannot distinguish between them.

They are told that by evolving further 'You shall be as God (the creator of good), knowing good and evil' so as to choose 'good' instead of evil.

If there is to be further development towards good then there has to be knowledge of and understanding of good and evil and of the difference between them so that people can choose between them.

And the human brain evolves from the mammalian brain. The increased brain capacity and the evolution of the neocortex enable humans to know the difference between good and evil.


Human beings are mortal.

Mortality is essential if evolution towards a better life-form, towards a better way of living, is to proceed by evolution.

Natural selection is improvement by trial and error. Immortality would end the evolution of species and of humankind towards a better life-form, towards a better way of living.

Brutal viciousness, oppression, exploitation, corruption, evil would dominate for ever if it gained the upper hand, and this cannot be allowed to happen under any circumstances.


And this would seem to be, in essence, what Genesis Chapters 2 and 3 say about the evolution of human beings.


Cain and Abel (Genesis Chapter 4)

We saw that

Evolution had turned into a bitter struggle for the survival of the fittest, where the most fittest was the most vicious and violent. The most 'advanced' species was the species which was the most vicious. Life was brutal and dominated by evil. This is how reptiles came to dominate the earth.

At the level of evolution of the reptile, territory is acquired by force and defended. Might is right. {7}

But mammals had developed some feelings of care and affection towards others but had no knowledge of good and evil and so could not distinguish between them.

And Chapter 4 of Genesis continues the record from this point onwards.


Genesis is telling a continuous interrelated story and in the whole of this chapter God is referred to by the Hebrew name Yhwh. This means God (as cause), signifying 'this is happening' or 'this is what happened', here meaning 'this is what happened'. <7>

There is one exception, namely in the second-last sentence (Gen 4: 25) which introduces the subject matter of the subsequent chapter of Genesis.

The use of Yhwh in the whole of this chapter is quite clearly intentional and significant.

It indicates that this chapter of Genesis does not refer to evolutionary change, that this chapter is about what 'man' does, about how a human-like life form is behaving at its level of development.


1 And the man [ha-adam] knew [eth-] Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore [eth-] Cain, and said: 'I have gotten a man with the help of the [eth] Lord.

2 And again she bore his [eth-] brother [eth-] Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

The 'ha' before Adam shows that we are being told about a group of individuals. As 'Adam' consists of many individuals, so 'eth-' before Eve, Cain, brother, Abel indicates that it happened correspondingly many times, as does the 'eth-' before Yhwh.

We are being told what happened to many individuals within a particular life form, by a record apparently relating to an individual.

3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to the Lord.

4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering;

5 but unto Cain and to his offering He had no respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

Abel choose the finest he had, but that Cain was indifferent, merely discharging his duty {13}. In other words, Abel was 'good', Cain merely appeared to be so.

'was very wroth': "Literally 'it was very hot unto Cain' {13}

Cain's name is generally considered to signify 'owner, possession', but the Hebrew word is more likely related to 'jealous'.

Abel's name signifies 'of no consequence', possibly 'weakness'.

So it seems that Cain felt strongly envious of Abel's offering, possibly wanting the offering or Abel's possessions for himself.

6 And the Lord said to Cain: 'Why are you wroth? And why is your countenance fallen?

Why are you envious?

7 If you do well, shall it not be lifted up? And if you do not well, sin couches at the door; and unto you is its desire, but you may rule over it.'

What happens is that if you do well, you will feel well.

Sin is that which is 'evil' as compared with that which is 'good', and sin has been defined earlier as viciousness, beast against beast, might being right, as oppressing and exploiting fellow beings.

Couching: In the background, hiding.

At the door: At the threshold of consciousness.


'And towards you is its desire,': Referring to sin, to the evil inclination, which is continually desiring and craving to make you stumble. <4>

"... it (sin) wishes to master you and to have dominion over you like ..." {13}

So 'sin couches at the door; and unto you is its desire' describes what we know: that the predatory instincts of reptilian ancestors are still within us at the threshold of consciousness and can through our feelings push us towards primitive beastly behaviour, towards doing what is evil, into gaining at expense of fellow beings.

But if you do not do well, then your feelings can push you towards primitive beastly behaviour which is lurking at the threshold of consciousness, but you should be able to control and reject such feelings and thoughts.


8 And Cain spoke to Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

Since Cain 'spoke' to Abel and then killed him, the killing was either thought of in advance or else driven by uncontrolled feelings of envy at the time.

Cain did not control and reject evil feelings and thoughts.


9 And the Lord said to Cain: 'Where is Abel your brother?' And he said:'I know not; am I my brother's keeper?'

Cain does not see or acknowledge that he has done any wrong.

For human beings, primitive (reptilian) instinctive urges and behaviour are overlaid by mammalian care and affection for one's young and human care and affection for one's family, other people and community. {7}

Humane behaviour is based on feelings of care and affection for the young and for the family, and then for other people and the community. From this emerges a sense of social responsibility: people matter and are important, need to be treated well and looked after, are entitled to share equally. And humane behaviour is backed up by knowledge, understanding and reason. {7}

Cain rejects concern, care, affection for others, rejects social responsibility.

Cain does not behave like a human being. His behaviour is that of a primitive animal.

10 And He said: 'What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood cries to Me from the ground.

The Hebrew for 'blood' is in the plural form, indicating more than one 'blood'.

11 And now cursed are you from the ground, which has opened her mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand.

Here also the Hebrew for 'blood' is in the plural form, again indicating more than one 'blood'.

As said before, we are being told what happened to many people by a story about individuals with individual names. And so verses 10 and 11 refer to blood in the plural, apparently indicating that people were killing each other, that in this way the strong, the most brutal, were dominating others of their own kind.

12 When you till the ground, it shall not henceforth yield to you her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shall you be in the earth.'

Possibly having to move, or looking for a better place to live.

13 And Cain said to the Lord: 'My punishment is greater than I can bear.

Rashi <4>: 'Is my sin too great to be borne?, that is 'to be forgiven?'

It appears that Cain questions the punishment, does not accept it.

14 Behold, You have driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Your face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whoever finds me will slay me.'

Spreading to other lands. Having to fight for possession, the stronger winning or surviving, might being right.

15 And the Lord said to him: 'Therefore whoever slays Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.' And the Lord set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him.

"The verse says, literally, 'any one slaying Cain', not if anyone slays 'you'." {13}

Sevenfold: "Connotes in perfect measure, with the full stringency of the law." {13}

Those who attack them (kill Cain) are to be punished in full measure. In other words, any who attack them are paid back in full measure.

Every one's hand is turned against every one else. Kill or be killed. Dominate or submit.

16 And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod on the east of Eden.

'land of Nod': That is, land of 'wandering' on the east of Eden'.

Here 'kidmath-eden' has been rendered 'east of Eden' but it means 'land that used to be a place of pleasure' <8>. Presumably the reference is to previously unsettled, unoccupied land.

Which appears to mean that Cain dwelt and wandered in the land which used to be a place of pleasure.

This phrase has been used only once before in (Gen 2: 8) and it is not used for the later descendants of Seth. So its use here indicates that the descendants of Cain were the first human-like people to multiply and spread.

17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore Enoch; and he builded a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch.

Wandering and settling down, then more wandering. That is, spreading.


18 And to Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begot Mehujael; and Mehujael (Heb. Mehijael) begot Methushael; and Methushael begot Lamech.

19 And Lamech took to him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other was Zillah.

Evil here begets greater evil. Lamech has two wives which in normal circumstances would mean that another has to do without a wife.

23-24 And Lamech said to his wives:

Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; You wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;

If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold

Seventy-seven fold: in overflowing measure, more than is due, many for one. {13}

Commits acts of violence and boasts about them. {13}

Lamech is more violent than Cain. He has killed two people for bruising or wounding him and openly boasts about it, saying that those who attack him are being punished not just in full measure (Cain) but in overflowing measure (seventy-seven fold).

Evil, corruption, are spreading and getting worse.

Power corrupts, competition and opposition is killed, the murderer is protected, and power becomes more absolute, becomes even more corrupt and 'evil' becomes stronger.


25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: 'for God has appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.'

The name Elohim (creator, creator of that which is good) is pointedly used in this verse as the last two sentences of this chapter introduce the subject matter of the immediately following chapter.

At this point, evolution (creation) takes a further step towards that which is good, indicated by God being referred to as God (creator) in this verse.

Another line of descendants from Adam and Eve. Another beginning, another evolutionary development, another life form, a more humane people.

26 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh; then began men to call upon the name of the Lord.

It is the descendants of Seth who are enumerated in the next chapter. They are aware of the difference between good and evil, are human beings (See Gen 5: 1-3 at the beginning of the immediately following chapter). We are told that each human generation 'begot sons and daughters.' So human beings multiplied and spread.

Hence 'then began men to call upon the name of God (as cause)' tells that from then on the descendants of Cain began to call for help.



What is described in this chapter (Gen 4) about the descendants of Cain is the behaviour of a mammalian human-like life form whose behaviour is more beast-like than human.

This is not human behaviour. It is beast-like behaviour by human-like animals. What is described here appears to relate to the life of Homo erectus who were replaced by humans.


Homo erectus appeared about 2 million years ago <12>
Thousands
(Thousands
of years ago)
   
     
250   Men with larger brains than Homo erectus began to appear in different parts of the world.
     
200   Homo erectus largely extinct.
     
130   Oldest humans (Homo sapiens, Wise man) in Africa.
     
100   Humans had replaced the other ones (such as Java man in Indonesia, Peking man in China). {3}


So Homo sapiens (humans) ultimately replaced Homo erectus (Erect man).


The Descendants of Seth (Genesis Chapter 5)

1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;

2 male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.

Although the story is told about individuals, its content relates to the life form (human beings) as a whole.

3 And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth.

'a son in his own likeness': That is, 'in the likeness of God' (See v1 above).

God is here referred to as God (creator), the creator of all that is good, as in Genesis Chapter 1.

The text in Chapter 1 of Genesis draws a distinction between image and likeness, that is between 'appearance' and 'discernment and understanding'. And man (male and female) are there recorded as having been created only in God's image, alike to God only in appearance. <13>

And 'Adam' (male and female) are here stated to have been created also in the likeness of God. That is, they know good and evil and can distinguish between them (Gen 3: 5, 22).

So this chapter 5 of Genesis is about how human beings multiplied and behaved, is about the descendants of Seth who are human beings.

And every generation has 'sons and daughters'. There were no such statements in the previous chapter about the descendants of Cain. Which tells us that human beings increased in number compared with the descendants of Cain.

We know that human beings with their larger brains spread across the planet and replaced Homo erectus.

So we are here looking at the development and behaviour of human beings who know of, can distinguish between and can choose between, good and evil.

Thousands
(Thousands
of years ago)
   
     
250   Men with larger brains than Homo erectus began to appear in different parts of the world.
     
200   Homo erectus largely extinct. {6}
     
130   Oldest humans (Homo sapiens, modern humans) in Africa.
     
100   Humans had replaced the other ones (such as Java man in Indonesia, Peking man in China). {3}
     
50   Humans In Australia
     
40   Humans In Europe
     
30   From 30,000 years ago, to the present, all cultures and remains are those of humans.


Concluding

Life as we know it today appears to have developed very, very slowly by a process of trial and error. Each change was evaluated by the extent to which it enabled a life form to survive and multiply in a largely hostile environment in competition with other life forms.

Remarkable is the enormous timescale during which this slow process has enabled ourselves to be created. We are the most complicated and advanced life form and there are many gaps in our knowledge and appreciation of the way in which we exist, function, live and behave.

Alarming is the infinitesimally small period of time in which our technological progress has so vastly exceeded our social organisation and behaviour that now the survival of our species is in doubt.


Evil must not gain the upper hand under any circumstances.


Each person can now have access to vast knowledge undreamt of only a few years ago. <19>

But this needs to be supplemented with the ability to think clearly, to assess and evaluate reliability and applicability, on the basis of knowledge of good and evil and of the essential need for behaving humanely, for following (doing) good instead of evil.

It is here that the relevance and importance of the Pentateuch's <15> social laws and teachings become apparent. The Pentateuch adds to mere mechanistic and chance processes the knowledge that human beings need to behave humanely if they wish to prosper and succeed. Stating clearly what is, and is not, humane behaviour, clearly defining the difference between good (including human rights and justice) and evil, adding that human beings stand or fall by the way they behave. {1}


The meaning and intent of Genesis is explored further in 'Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time' {15}. It begins with the hidden description of pre-flood evils in Chapter 5 of Genesis and discusses the flood and its consequences, showing that a major planet-wide happening corresponds to what is recorded in Genesis about the Flood, occurring at the right time in the history of human beings.


Appendix 1:

Names of God

Translations into English from the Hebrew text refer to God using three designations, namely God, Lord God, and Lord.

Hebrew   English
     
Elohim   God
     
Yhwh Elohim   Lord God
     
Yhwh   the Lord


Yhwh

This designation is generally represented by its four consonants.

It was apparently regularly pronounced with its vowels until the destruction of the First Temple. But its pronunciation was avoided from the third century BCE. From then on the Hebrew word consisting of the consonants Yhwh was pronounced 'Adonay' and translated as 'the Lord' although 'Adonay' means 'my Lords'. Hence Yhwh is being translated as 'the Lord'. {14}

The true pronunciation of Yhwh was apparently 'Yahweh', meaning 'He causes to be, He brings into existence'. In the Middle Ages vowel points were added to the consonantal form of the Bible. 'Those used for Yhwh produced the form YeHoVaH and Christian scholars then introduced the name Jehovah.' {14}.

So Yhwh, regardless of how you pronounce it, means 'He causes to be'.


Elohim

The word 'Eloha' means God, and its plural 'Elohim' means 'gods'.
Elohim is usually translated as if it meant 'God'.


Yhwh Elohim

Yhwh means 'He causes to be' and also 'He brings into existence'.
'Elohim' means 'gods' but here also is usually translated as if it meant 'God'.
So 'Yhwh Elohim' means God brings into existence.


Hence the meaning and significance of the names of God is as follows:

Hebrew Name     ELOHIM     YHWH ELOHIM     YHWH
             
Translated as   God   Lord God   the Lord
             
Derivation of Name   God who creates, Creating God   God who brings into existence, God who originates, Originating God   He causes to be, What took place was, What happened was, What is happening
             
Meaning of Name   GOD or GOD (AS CREATOR).
God as creator, as creator of all that is good.
   GOD (AS ORIGINATOR)   GOD (AS CAUSE), as cause of what happened.

In other words, this is happening, is what happened.


Example 1: (Gen 7: 16)

And they ... went in (into the ark) ... as God (Elohim) commanded him; and the Lord (Yhwh) shut him in.


Example 2: From {15}

In (Gen 3: 17) the ground is cursed by God (Yhwh Elohim, as originator), meaning that it will be so.

(Gen 5: 29) states that God (Yhwh, as cause) has cursed, meaning that it is happening, that it is so.



Appendix 2:

Creation of Planet and Life; Evolution of Human Beings

The summary information in the following table has been compiled from a number of sources {3, 6-7, 11-12} as a kind of overview over current knowledge. It is an aid towards understanding that the known sequence of events parallels what is recorded in Genesis.

Some of what follows is uncertain. Being current knowledge {3 <11>, 6} it is likely to change as more knowledge is gained. Where there are disagreements I have tried to indicate this by quoting alternative viewpoints.

Definitions

Primate       An animal of the highest order of mammals, including apes, monkeys, and man
     
Hominoid   An animal resembling a human
     
Homo erectus   Erect man, much smaller skull size than that of humans
     
Homo sapiens   Modern humans, larger brain size than Homo erectus, humans, human beings



Years Ago
(Of the
order of;
as far as we know)
   
     
Billions
(Billions of
years ago)
   
     
4.5   Planet formed
     
4   There was liquid water on earth.
     
3.5  

Land beginning to form. Largely covered with shallow water. Virtually no free oxygen.

Early plant life fixes carbon dioxide and gives off oxygen and so makes planet habitable for our kind of life forms.

Large land areas formed.

     
Millions
(Millions of years ago)
   
         
600  

Massive ice age. First mass destruction of life on earth. About 70 percent of life on earth was killed.

Continents broke apart, more circulation of warm water and this finished the ice age.

     
600/700  

When the ice age finished, the water rose, covered part of the land resulting in shallow coastal areas. Right conditions for life to evolve.

Soft-bodied multicellular animals living in the sea. Followed by explosion of life forms. All the major categories of animals had already evolved then.

     
520  

Some of the animals lived by eating others. Predators and prey.

Only in the ocean so far. Water teemed with different animals and plants. Land barren and lifeless.

     
450  

Plants made the evolutionary step which allowed them to leave the water. Soil built up. Soon afterwards the animals followed.

As far as we know, it was the early plant life which fixed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and gave off oxygen and so made the planet habitable for our kind of life forms.

     
350   First fossilised footprint on land. At the same time, descendants of fishes, the land vertebrates, had also emerged from the sea.
     
300   The land was alive with amphibians and reptiles. For example, reptiles which could chew and breathe at the same time and which were the first reptiles to dominate the world.
     
250  

Massive volcanic eruptions and outpourings in the region of Siberia seem to have lasted for several million years. About 90 percent of land and marine life was destroyed.

Some of the reptiles survived.

     
200  

By this time a new group of much smaller animals had evolved. True mammals. Small mice-like.

Reptiles were more suited to the conditions of the time.

     
65  

Dinosaurs had dominated the earth for something like 170 million years.

Another mass extinction. Land, air and sea life disappeared. About 70 percent of all plant and animal species were wiped out, including the dinosaurs. Mammals had previously been held down by the reptiles but now the primates emerged and eventually ourselves.

Apparently caused by meteor strike [Yucatan) and by massive volcanic outpourings (series of eruptions, India). Global climate apparently altered for hundreds of thousands years.

     
3.5   Hominoids, animals resembling humans, appeared about this time. Erect bipeds with our body shape. Intermediate between humans and apes. Appear in East Africa.
     
2   It seems that Homo erectus (Erect man, much smaller skull size than that of humans) appeared about two million years ago. {3}
     
Thousands
(Thousands of years ago)
   
       
600/700   Rapid fluctuations between wet and dry periods. Uncertainty of environment.
     
250   Men with larger brains than Homo erectus began to appear in different parts of the world.
     
230   Only Neanderthals in Europe.
     
200   Homo erectus largely extinct. {6}
     
130   Oldest humans (Homo sapiens, Wise man) in Africa.
     
120   Some humans stayed in Africa. Rest migrated out of Africa and had reached Asia and Europe by 40,000 years ago.
     
100   Humans had replaced the other ones (such as Java man in Indonesia, Peking man in China). {3}
     
75   About 75 thousand years ago there was a massive volcanic eruption in Sumatra which severely affected the climate causing a planet-wide (average) drop in temperature of something like 5 degrees C. It seems that at roughly the same time there was apparently an enormous reduction of world population. It has recently been estimated from a reduction in genetic diversity which occurred at about this time that only a few thousand (say 5 to 10 thousand) humans could have survived. The two events appear to be connected.
     
70   Humans in Africa.
     
50   Humans In Australia
     
40   Humans In Europe
     
35   The Neanderthals were gone.
     
30   From 30,000 years ago, to the present, all cultures and remains are those of humans.


Homo erectus may have evolved separately in different parts of the planet {3} or may have evolved in Africa and moved out of Africa into Asia {6}.

And similarly we do not know whether humans (Homo sapiens) evolved from Homo erectus
(1) by local evolutionary steps in several places, or
(2) by an initial evolutionary step in one place followed by migration to others.

But we do know that from mammals evolved hominoids (animals resembling a human) which were later replaced by Homo erectus (Erect man), themselves later replaced by Homo sapiens (larger brain size than Homo erectus, humans, human beings).


Now
(A few years)

And now we have created External Memory, the vast mass of externally prepared and stored information which is accumulating. It has accumulated ever since people told stories to their young who in turn retold them to later generations and ever since writing was invented and the printed word accumulated, followed by pictures, photographs, films and videos, television and computerised manipulation of text and images. All of which spread and proliferated together with corresponding search (recall, retrieval, associating and selecting) procedures. {7}

External memory expanded enormously and became immediately accessible a few years ago, includes the Worldwide-web or Internet, is rapidly expanding planet-wide.



Appendix 3:

'Adam' and Hebrew Grammar

Eth    

'Eth' is put before the object of the sentence if the object is either a definite noun (has article 'ha') or a proper noun (proper name).

Example:
Jim ate the bread.
'Jim' is the subject, the doer of the action.
Bread is the object of the action.

     
     
Eth adam   'Adam' is the proper name of one person, refers to the person whose name is 'Adam'.
     
     
Ha-adam  

Life form(s). Example: Human beings.

If Adam stands for 'life form', then one can put 'ha' in front.

If 'Adam' is a proper name, one cannot say 'ha-adam'.
In other words, 'ha-adam' does not refer to a person named 'Adam'.

     
     
Eth ha-adam   The life form is the object of the sentence. The life forms are the object of the sentence.



Notes and References


Notes

< 1>     See {1}: Appendix 4: Cause-and-effect Relationship in the Torah.
     
< 2>   I gratefully acknowledge the assistance I received from Esther Shouby without whose professional knowledge of Hebrew I might not have been able to explain the meaning of the ancient Hebrew texts.
     
< 3>   Much of what is said here about how the planet developed and how life evolved is based on the expertly produced and directed series of TV documentaries presented by Aubrey Manning {3}.
     
< 4>   See {4}: Commentary by Rashi.
     
< 5>   This brings together many ancient sayings and bible interpretations. The first six volumes are about Genesis.
     
< 6>   See {5}: Kasher 1: 72: Commentary on Gen 1: 31
     
< 7>   See Appendix 1: Names of God
     
< 8>   See corresponding note to (Gen 2: 8) about 'mi-kedem' having been rendered as 'eastward'.
     
< 9>   For more comprehensive information about the family and how it functions in tough social environments, and about the pressures it faces from without and from within, see {10}
     
<10>   For more information about the way in which the neocortex functions and about role of the two halves of the brain, see {7}.
     
<11>   See {3}: Parts 5 and 6.
     
<12>   See comments on, and immediately following, (Gen 2: 25). Also see Appendix 2: 'Creation of Planet and Life; Evolution of Human Beings'.
     
<13>   See my earlier comments in 'Stage 6 (the sixth day) (Gen 1: 24-31)'
     
<14>   Commonly supposed to refer to one person but the text says otherwise. See Appendix 3: 'Adam' and Hebrew Grammar.
     
<15>  

The 'Torah' (Pentateuch, Five Books of Moses) consists only of the five books of Moses.

Those wishing to give other writings an appearance of greater authority refer to these other writings as if they were part of the Torah. Those doing so appear to be spreading a kind of misleading political propaganda.

     
<16>   The Pentateuch text used in this report is generally that of The Soncino Chumash (Bible) {4} which consists of Hebrew text, English translation and selected commentaries. But archaic words such as 'thou' and 'shalt' were changed to 'you' and 'shall'.
     
<17>   See Appendix 3: 'Adam' and Hebrew Grammar
     
<18>   Relevant information about the history of the planet and evolution of human beings, from the planet's creation onwards to the present, is summarised in Appendix 2: 'Creation of Planet and Life; Evolution of Human Beings'.
     
<19>   In Appendix 2: 'Creation of Planet and Life; Evolution of Human Beings', see notes on External Memory under time sub-heading 'Years: Now'.
     
<20>   See below, verse 24.
     
<21>   Eve (Hebrew: Havvah, that is, Life): Derived from 'chayyah' meaning 'living'. <4>
     
<22>   Compare with Genesis Chapter 1
     
<23>   Erect man, much smaller skull size than modern humans.


References

{ 1}     Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 2}   Genesis, Wellhausen and the Computer
Y. T. Radday, H. Shore, M. A. Pollatschek and D. Wickmann
Zeitschrift fuer die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
94. Band, Heft 4, 1982
Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York
     
{ 3}   Earth Story
Presented by Aubrey Manning
Learning Channel Co-Production, BBC, 1998
Series Producer David Singleton
     
{ 4}   The Soncino Chumash
Edited by Rev. Dr. A. Cohen
Soncino Press, 1947.
     
{ 5}   'Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation'
Menahem M Kasher
American Biblical Encyclopedia Society, 1953. <5>
     
{ 6}   The Origin of Modern Humans: Multiregional and Replacement Theories
http://www.linfield.edu/-mrobert/origins.html
Michael Roberts, Dec 1999
     
{ 7}   How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 8}   A Triune Concept of the Brain and Behaviour
P D MacLean
University of Toronto Press, 1973
     
{ 9}   The Dragons of Eden
Carl Sagan
Hodder and Stoughton, 1978
     
{10}   Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{11}   Homo Erectus: Out of Asia
TV Documentary
Horizon, 1997
     
{12}   Supervolcanoes
TV Documentary
Horizon, Feb 2000
     
{13}   A Commentary on the Book of Genesis.
Part 1: From Adam to Noah;
Part 2: From Noah to Abraham.
By U. Cassuto (1944)
Translated from the Hebrew by Israel Abrahams (1961)
The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
     
{14}   Encyclopaedia Judaica
Keter Publishing House Jerusalem Ltd, 1974
     
{15}   Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{16}   Genesis: Differentiating Between Good and Evil
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann


Relevant Current and Associated Works

Other relevant current and associated reports by Manfred Davidmann:
     
     
Title   Description
     
ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM   Proves by methods of biblical archaeology what Jesus really taught, how Paul changed what Jesus had taught, how this became Christianity's official doctrine. Outstanding are sections on Paul and the Gospels, on concurrent corresponding changes in Judaism.
     
Liberation Theology: Basis - Past - Present - Future   Discusses Christianity's origins using Christian and Jewish sources. Liberation theologians emphasise compassion and leadership in the struggle for a better life. Shows that one can analyse effectively how the Christian Canon developed.
     
Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship   Major review and analysis of the social laws and social system of the Torah and of the Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship. Also reviews the role of religion and of Judaism under modern conditions.
     
One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever   Document describing the struggles within Judaism which accompanied the birth of Rabbinical Judaism, how people felt about what was happening, how the Talmud recorded events and what would have to be done to reverse the trend of events.
     
How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works   Describes clearly what happens while sleeping, role of dreaming, meaning of dreams. Functioning of the two halves of the human brain is related to the autonomic nervous and the immune systems. Shows how human behaviour is affected by primitive instincts.
     
Family, Sex and the Individual   This report investigates casual sex and its effects on individuals, family and community. It examines the role of the family in bringing up children and relates dominance and confrontation within the family to that in the working environment.

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RELEVANT SUBJECT INDEX PAGES


Other Subjects; Other Publications


The Site Overview page has links to all individual Subject Index Pages which between them list the works by Manfred Davidmann which are available on the Internet, with short descriptions and links for downloading.

To see the Site Overview page, click Overview


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Copyright    ©    Manfred Davidmann    March 2000
All rights reserved worldwide.

History
13/03/00 Work Completed
01/08/00 To Website
01/09/00 Added {15}, note referring to it, corresponding 'flood' data (Appendix 2) and second example to Appendix 1.
03/06/01 Added explanation of 'Eden's Rivers' and {16}. Added 'Overview'.