Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time

by Manfred Davidmann



Contents

Overview
Introduction
Descendants of Seth (Behaviour of Human Beings; Genesis Chapter 5)
The Flood (Genesis Chapters 6-8)
Behaviour and Consequences (Genesis Chapter 9)
Humane Behaviour
Social Background
Domineering, Oppression, Exploitation, Misuse of Others
Armed Forces, Military Strength. Dictatorship and Authoritarianism
Possessions, Ownership and Riches
Social System and Social Laws of the Bible
Government; Positions of Trust, Responsibility and Authority; Hierarchies
Ten Commandments
Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship
Social Laws, Social System

Explanations, Comments, Notes and Analysis
Appendix 1 Descendants of Seth (Genesis Chapter 5)
Appendix 2 The Flood (Genesis: Chapter 6-8)
Appendix 3 Behaviour and Consequences (Genesis Chapter 9)

Notes, References and Links
Notes   <..>
References and Links   {..}

Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview



Overview

This report is one of a series which together describe and illustrate the meaning and intent of Genesis. Each is self-contained but together they provide the knowledge needed for understanding Genesis, its allegories and their significance. These allegories illustrate and define the difference between good and evil, and the importance of behaviour on social strength, well-being and good life under modern conditions.


Genesis begins by describing how the planet was created, in other words how it was formed, the changes which occurred as the planet aged, how plants and animals were formed, evolved and populated the planet. It describes how human beings evolved and also how the behaviour of life forms changed as human beings evolved.

When the Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses) was written about 3,400 years ago, people had but little knowledge about science or evolution compared with what is known today. So concepts for which we now have precise terms were described rather than stated and expressed in religious terms so that they could be appreciated and followed by the population.

Understanding this we see that there is no conflict, no contradiction, no divergence, only awe-inspiring agreement, between what is stated in Genesis and what we now know about the evolution of human beings.

See The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil


Chapters 5 and 6 then describe the behaviour of human beings before the flood. There is no conscious knowledge of good and evil and of the difference between them and their behaviour is like that of their primitive ancestors. Their behaviour is stated and condemned as evil. These two chapters of Genesis outline evil behaviour.

Chapter 5 shows people amassing possessions and wealth and dominating others by brutal strength.
See Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time
Chapter 6 adds unrestrained sexual behaviour
See Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity
and Chapter 6 also adds the gaining and misuse of power over others.
See Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty


The flood follows and from here onwards Genesis shows a conscious knowledge developing of good and evil, stressing consequent reward and punishment, justice and retribution.

Human beings are shown to be becoming numerous and spreading out, behaving much as before the flood. Different communities developed different customs, traditions, ways of behaving and, with the life and travels of the Patriarchs, some learned to know the difference between good and evil, learned to behave humanely.
See Genesis: Differentiating Between Good and Evil
Genesis records what is, and is not, moral sexual behaviour and the consequences of depravity. Clearly stated is that the consequences cannot be avoided.
See Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity
Genesis considers the gaining and misuse of power over others. We are told the consequences of allowing some people to misuse their abilities to manipulate, control and enslave others. And the Pentateuch states social laws of behaviour and a social system which have to be kept as they enable people to gain and keep liberty and good lives of high quality.
See Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty


The abovementioned reports also summarise corresponding present social problems and describe the Pentateuch's social laws and social system for overcoming them.

Further relevant knowledge and information necessary for understanding the meaning of Genesis can be found in the following reports:

Meaning and Significance of the Names of God in Genesis
Describes the meaning and significance of the names of God which are used in Genesis. These are of greatest importance for understanding the meaning of the text of the Bible.

Meaning and Intent of Genesis: Essential Notes on Hebrew Grammar
Lists and illustrates the grammatical rules which help to differentiate between references to individuals and references to groups or life forms. Essential information for understanding the meaning of Genesis.

Bible Translations, Versions, Codes and Hidden Information in Bible and Talmud
Shows how changes made in the past have obscured the original intended meaning. Describes the ways in which hidden information has been encoded and labelled so that its original meaning could not be misunderstood or misinterpreted.


Introduction

Chapters 1-4 of Genesis <8> describe in religious language the creation of planet earth and of life, the evolution of animals to human beings, the origin of evil and the behaviour of early human-like beings. What distinguishes human beings from earlier life forms is that we have the ability to know good and evil, to distinguish good from evil and to choose good instead of evil. {1}

Genesis states {1} that there is eternal enmity between beasts and human beings. Eternal enmity between beastly viciousness and oppression on the one hand and humane care and affection for people on the other, eternal enmity between good and evil.

And Genesis showed that human beings learned that to be human one had to control instinctive behaviour and urges, and to struggle against viciousness and oppression.

Here, in this report, we start with Chapter 5. In Chapter 5, and in later chapters, Genesis looks at how human beings spread across the planet, describes how people behaved and behave, how humane behaviour contrasts with beast-like behaviour. We are told that human beings are human beings only to the extent to which they behave humanely, that inhuman (beastly) behaviour is evil.

Inhuman behaviour is defined, at times in secretive ways, and Genesis and the other books of the Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses) <2> add the elements of human rights, of justice and morality, of retribution for doing evil.


One's understanding of Genesis depends to a considerable extent on how the ancient text has been translated in the past. For a deeper understanding of Genesis, see two short reports {2, 3} entitled 'Meaning and Intent of Genesis: Essential Notes on Hebrew Grammar' and 'Meaning and Significance of the Names of God in Genesis'.


Where relevant I have presented information by indenting as follows:

As stated in Genesis
Explanations and comments
Current knowledge, science
Additional notes, comments and quotations


Descendants of Seth (Behaviour of Human Beings) (Genesis Chapter 5)

Chapter 5 of Genesis is about how human beings increased in numbers and about how human beings behaved.

And for the last few thousand years, people have read chapters 5 and 6 of Genesis and wondered in what ways 'the wickedness of man was great in the earth' and 'every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually (Gen 6: 5), causing God (as creator of all that is good) {3} to say that 'all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth' (Gen 6: 12).


On the surface, this chapter appears to be a list of successive generations of human beings, generation by generation, a person by person listing in direct line of descent from Adam to another Lamech, the number of people in each generation increasing.

What had also remained unexplained until now was why it was necessary to list in detail how old they were when their first child was born, how long they lived after that, and how old they were when they died. The answer is that Chapter 5 of Genesis contains an underlying and important message about evil, contains a hidden description of corrupt and evil behaviour.

Where Pentateuch and Talmud contain hidden information, then this is pointed to, stated and confirmed, at the same time and in a number of different independent ways, to ensure the message is understood as it was intended to be understood. <10>

The complete analysis, with explanations, comments and notes, is in Appendix 1 'Descendants of Seth'. Based on the work recorded in Appendix 1, we continue here by looking at the inner meaning and significance of the text.


Chapter 5 of Genesis begins by telling us that from now on we are being told about human beings and about their behaviour.

In one case a lifespan is stated to have been 365 years.

All the ages and life spans mentioned in this chapter of Genesis are either exact multiples of five, or else multiples of five with the addition of seven. In one case, seven is added twice. {13}.

Cassuto pointed out the abovementioned numerical system, but failed to realise its significance.

All numbers can, in general, be constructed by combining (adding or subtracting) multiples of five and seven. The number 36, for example, is (5x10)-7-7. But in this chapter there are five occasions when a single number seven is added to the basic number. Occurring five times this is most unlikely due to chance alone.

And Lamech's lifespan is given as 777 years which pointedly continues this series of numbers, the same name 'Lamech' being the second and confirming pointer:

Ch 4, v15   Cain   7   fold
Ch 4, v24   Lamech   77   fold
Ch 5, v31   Lamech   777   years


The numerical system is a means towards an end. An important statement is being made but it is hidden. The text is telling us something much more important than implausible-seeming ages and life spans of individuals. There has to be good reason for the secrecy and Table 1 illustrates the age-related information listed in this chapter.


Table 1: Life Spans (Genesis 5: )

Name   Age at which first child born   Years alive after first child born   Lifespan
    (Years)   (Years)   (Years)
             
    Column 1   2   3
             
             
Adam   130   800   930
                   
Seth   105   800+7   905+7
Enosh    90   815   905
Kenan    70   840   910
Mahalalel    65   830   895
Jared   155+7   800   955+7
Enoch    65   300   365
Methuselah   180+7   775+7   955+7+7
Lamech   175+7   595   770+7=777


The sevens are added in seemingly random fashion in the first two columns of the table. Three sevens are added in column 1 and two sevens are added in column 2.

But all the numerical pointers come together, appear, in the last column. Hence it would seem to be the life spans which point to hidden meaning.

And that column contains a lifespan of 365 years which is much smaller than all the others. But 365 is also the number of days in a year. Which means that the number '365' also has another obvious and well-known meaning quite separate from 'lifespan of 365 years'. And this seems to confirm that the other life spans point to hidden meaning.

Further, the first person to have a seven added to his life span is Seth, the last person to have a seven added is Lamech. This would seem to be significant as the generations here being enumerated begin with Seth and finish with Lamech.

The first four (Seth to Mahalalel) have a life span which is roughly constant, almost the same, ranging from 895 to 912 years. The second four (Jared to Lamech) have life spans which fluctuate enormously by comparison, ranging from 365 to 969. In this way a clear distinction is drawn between these groups of people, of generations, of descendants who follow each other.


Which leads one to look at the meaning of their names and these are listed in Table 2 <6>:



Table 2: Meaning of Names (Genesis 5: )

Name   Pointer   Life Span   Meaning of Name
             
             
Seth   +7   912   Foundation.
             
Enosh   ----   905   Human being.
Kenan       ----       910       Owner, possession, gain. Variant of Cain.
Mahalalel   ----   895   Praise of God, God lets his light shine.
             
Jared   +7   962   Going down, descent.
Enoch   365   365   Teacher. Beginning.
             
Methuselah   +7+7   969   Man of spear (or sword or weapon).
Lamech   +7=777   777   Strong. He who overcomes.



The names of those unmarked by pointers tell a clear story when looked at in the sequence of the generations. Some start as ordinary human beings, gain possessions, are successful materially. As all belongs to all, their gains are made at the expense of others. Their success is indicated by the meaning of Mahalalel's name. God has favoured them, they are successful.


The names of those marked by pointers tell quite a different story which is clear at least in outline.

Human beings know and are capable of distinguishing between good and evil and we are now told what is happening:

Enoch and Lamech stand out. They are pointed to by their unusual life spans. The second pointer to them is that their life spans are the only ones stated using 'and was' (v23 and v31).

Enoch 'walked with God' (v22), behaved humanely, died when young. What is taking place resembles what happened to Abel but without killing being mentioned. The names of Jared and Enoch together appear to confirm the resemblance to what took place in the previous chapter.

Methuselah's life span tells that he perished in the Flood, which seems to indicate that he did not follow God's ways <15>. In Chapter 4 of Genesis, those attacking Cain are paid back in full measure (7 times) and the later Lamech is more violent and hits out in overflowing measure (77 times). The Lamech (same name being a pointer) in Chapter 5 has a lifespan of 777 years, the hidden meaning being that he is much more violent. Here also the similarity of meaning of the names of Methuselah and Lamech confirms the intended meaning.

The good are disadvantaged, might and physical strength dominate, apparently even more so than before. Human beings are not behaving humanely, using their abilities towards evil instead of towards good. Evil, corruption, are spreading and getting worse.


But this is a continuous story from Seth to Lamech and the next chapter of Genesis records (Gen 6: 5) that 'the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.'

So what is recorded here is that some people obtained possessions, amassed wealth, at the expense of others. The 'good' were weakened and became disadvantaged as self-interest (greed, ownership, exploitation, so-called materialism) increased and the strong used their strength and viciousness so as to dominate, misuse or exploit others for personal gain.

And corruption here is more severe than among descendants of Cain (777 here compared with 77 before).

Again, overall, the good are disadvantaged, brutal strength dominates. Human beings have the potential for behaving humanely, but are not doing so. Power corrupts. Evil, corruption, are spreading and getting worse.

Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely. What is stated here in Genesis is parallelled by what is known to have happened later under the Monarchy and under the Hasmonean (Maccabean) dynasty, apparently for the same cause and in the same way. {5}


And all this has been encoded, hidden from view. Why this secretive way of telling?

Because of hidden struggle between 'good' and 'evil' at the subconscious level?

At the threshold of consciousness, evil is straining to dominate and use people but human beings can reject, overcome and control evil. {1} <11>
Because of authoritarian brutality of life at time the Pentateuch was written?

Possibly because of authoritarian power of secular ruling, religious or wealthy hierarchies or families.
According to our present knowledge, both explanations (causes) may be correct and the second follows from the first when people behave inhumanely.


Or because the Pentateuch is not a textbook (guide) on how to do evil, but a guide to doing good, to behaving as human beings.

But later generations distorted the word of God {6, 7, 12}, distorted in different ways the Pentateuch's message of what is good and humane, on how human beings need to behave so as to have good lives of high quality, on how 'good' can, must and will overcome 'evil'.

It seems to me that if evil had been defined more clearly, then it would have been much more difficult to distort the Pentateuch's meaning and message.


However, one cannot look at chapter 5 of Genesis in isolation as each chapter is a unique part of, makes specific contributions to, the Pentateuch's developing story of the beginning (creation and creating) of human life and humane living, of good and evil, of reward and punishment.


The Flood (Genesis Chapters 6-8)

Chapter 5 and 6 of Genesis are about human beings who have the ability to distinguish between good and evil but do not use it, who continue to behave like their animal-like ancestors, who seem to be using their greater mental powers towards greater beastliness.

There was no objective knowledge of what constituted good, humane, behaviour. There were no rules of behaviour to enable people to resist and overcome the temptations of evil.

Genesis from here on stresses justice and retribution. Chapters 6-8 record the events of the Flood, linking what happened to the inhuman ways in which human beings behaved. Their behaviour included the evils described in Chapters 5. And those who choose to do evil suffer inevitable consequences, cannot avoid punishment.

'The wickedness of man was great in the earth' and 'every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually (Gen 6: 5), causing God (as creator of all that is good) to say that 'all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth' (Gen 6: 12), that 'the end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them' (Gen 6: 13), that God would 'bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life' (Gen 6: 17).

But there are to be some survivors, those who are 'righteous', who are 'wholehearted', who 'walked with God', are to survive (Gen 6: 9). Those who follow God's ways survive (Gen 7: 1) and repopulate the planet (Gen 9: 1).

From then on Genesis, the first volume (book) of the Pentateuch, defines evil more closely and describes and lays down what humane behaviour is and how it can be achieved. The social rules (laws) of behaviour set out in the Pentateuch enable people to resist, counter, overcome beastly temptations, to compare good with evil so as to choose good, to live good lives as human beings.


For detailed analysis, with explanations, comments and notes, see Appendix 2 'The Flood' from which the following information in this chapter was extracted.

(Genesis: Chapter 6: 5-8)

Human beings are capable of comparing good with evil and of choosing good, but the thoughts people are imagining are evil continually. Human beings as a whole are using their thinking and evaluating abilities towards evil, towards evil behaviour.

Life forms are evolving towards greater viciousness (evolution by the survival of the strongest, most vicious), human beings are misusing and exploiting each other for personal gain. So they were wiped out, Noah was the exception.

(Genesis 6: 9 to 8: 19)

Human beings were more corrupt and evil than their more beast-like predecessors and the flood occurred as a consequence.

We are told that the flood is a development towards good, a step ahead in the struggle for good against evil, for good against violence and corruption, that evil does not go unpunished, is being punished so as to control and overcome it.

It is God (as creator of all that is good) who shows Noah, who has behaved righteously, how to survive. All life forms are to be wiped out with the exception of Noah and those with him.

The Flood happened just as God (as creator of all that is good) had told Noah.

God (as creator, as creator of that which is good) ends the flood and tells Noah to leave the ark and the life forms are to repopulate the planet.

(Genesis 8: 20-22)

What is stated is that since then life as a whole has not been destroyed for a second time because the thoughts of human beings are evil from youth.



Genesis then states (Gen 8: 22) that 'While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.'

It may be that the list seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night refers to essential environmental characteristics on which depends the continuation of human life on the planet.

So these are happening and the earth is remaining.



As far as we know, the history of life on this planet tells of a major planet-wide happening which corresponds to what is recorded in Genesis about the Flood, occurring at the right time in the history of human beings. As follows <12>:

Thousands
(Thousands
of years ago)
   
     
120   Some human beings stayed in Africa. Rest migrated out of Africa.
     
75   About 75 thousand years ago there was a massive volcanic eruption in Sumatra which severely affected the climate causing a planet-wide (average) drop in temperature of something like 5 degrees C. It seems that at roughly the same time there was apparently an enormous reduction of world population. It has recently been estimated from a reduction in genetic diversity which occurred at about this time that only a few thousand (say 5 to 10 thousand) human beings could have survived. The two events appear to be connected.
     
70   Human beings in Africa.
     
50   Human beings in Australia
     
40   Human beings in Europe
     
30   From 30,000 years ago, to the present, all cultures and remains are those of human beings.



Following the description of events of the Flood in religious terms and as a consequence of the evil behaviour of human beings, Genesis begins to describe what constitutes humane, good, behaviour and makes the point that if human beings wish to survive and prosper they need to follow the rules of behaviour laid down by God.


Behaviour and Consequences (Genesis Chapter 9)

This chapter of Genesis begins to describe, to make people aware of, some primitive aspects of human behaviour. And human behaviour is shown to include the punishing of inhuman behaviour.

The detailed analysis with explanations, comments and notes is given in Appendix 3 'Wrongdoing and Retribution'.

What follows here is information extracted from Appendix 3.


Human beings are to be the most advanced life form and human beings may eat all that grows and all that moves and lives.

Animals must not be eaten while alive.


And God (as creator) says in effect 'Life is mine and there is an accounting for every human life. Human life must not be taken by animals nor must it be taken by other human beings.

Whatever or whoever takes the life of a human being, their life is to be taken in return by other human beings.

At this point of the Pentateuch this is a basic principle, part of the basic constitution. Later legal frameworks were developed to establish facts, circumstances, responsibility. Man-made legislation can be fair or unfair, just or corrupt (such as when applying one law for the poor and another to favour the rich).



Verse 9 records God as saying 'As for Me, behold, I establish My covenant with you, and with your seed after you;

A covenant is an agreement in which each of the parties undertakes duties and obligations towards the other.

It is not a one-sided promise or obligation.
And God is saying: 'As for Me, behold': On my part (as long as you do your part, as long as you behave like human beings), I ...



So far we have been told that animals must not kill human beings and human beings must not kill human beings.

Whatever or whoever takes the life of a human being, their life is to be taken in return by other human beings.

And God (as creator, as creator of all that is good) tells human beings that as long as they behave like human beings the planet will not be rendered uninhabitable.


From here on, Genesis and the other books of the Pentateuch contain much information about what kind of behaviour is good and righteous, about what kind of behaviour is wicked, evil, corrupt, immoral or violent, and about the resulting consequences when behaving one way or the other.

And rules of behaviour to strengthen that which is good, to enable human beings to gain strength and have good lives of high quality in the struggle against beastliness, against evil.


Humane Behaviour

Humane behaviour is aimed at survival of the young and of the family, and then is for the good of family, other people and the community. It is based on feelings of care and affection for others. From this emerges a sense of social responsibility: people matter and are important, need to be treated well and looked after, are entitled to share equally. Backed up by knowledge, understanding and reason. {9}

We know that dominating others is conditioned, that is unnatural, behaviour which is destructive of humane behaviour. A throw-back to the level of the unthinking unfeeling primitive animal. {9}

And knowledge of good and evil enables us to choose that which is good and to overcome that which is inhumane, which is evil.


Chapter 5 of Genesis said much. About inhuman behaviour, about possessions, ownership and riches, about domineering, oppression and misusing people by force. Emphasized by the statement that whatever pre-flood human beings were considering was evil.

These themes are continued in Genesis and in the other four volumes (books) of the Pentateuch. We are told about the obligatory social laws and social system which have to be kept if evil is to be overcome, so that human beings can have good lives of high quality.

What follows reviews present social background corresponding to the evils listed in Chapter 5 of Genesis. This is followed by a short summary of the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch in so far as these relate to the evils described in Chapter 5 of Genesis.



Social Background


Domineering, Oppression, Exploitation, Misuse of Others

What we see in the working environment is a world-wide struggle to achieve a humane way of life, each person, family or community struggling to advance at their own level of development, struggling against those who wish to dominate, exploit, oppress. A struggle whose successful outcome depends on trustful cooperation, companionship and teamwork. {10, 15, 16}

The struggle is against those who wish to dominate other people. Against those who want primitive power over others, against those who wish to exploit, against those who may brutally and without feeling oppress human beings so as to exploit them. And 'to exploit' includes the whole range of antisocial decisions and activities of those who put profit before people and community. {17}

Human rights are based on controlling primitive dominant behaviour, on concern, care and affection for our young, for our families, people and communities, and express themselves in cooperation and teamwork between men and women to achieve a good life of high quality.


Armed Forces, Military Strength. Dictatorship and Authoritarianism {10}

Sometimes one has to fight to preserve a good way of life, to prevent others from taking what has been achieved, or one is expected to fight on behalf of those who dominate and exploit.

Our primitive animal ancestors behaved instinctively. Hunt for food, kill or be killed, fight or flee. Self before others, regardless of needs of others, marking out and defending territory.

Later mammals tend to have feelings, care and affection for their young. Human beings think as well as feel, and care for and look after their young for many years.

Having to fight, maim and kill amounts to a throwback to primitive animal behaviour, to behaviour which puts self before others. A throwback to beast-like behaviour for those who attack, to beast-like behaviour to counter beast-like behaviour for those who defend.


Authoritarian organisations are much less effective than participative ones. In authoritarian organisations morale is low, people cease to care and tend to work against each other instead of cooperating with each other for the benefit of the organisation. {18, 19}

One way of countering viciousness is by greater strength. If attacked, we have to defend ourselves.

Human beings cooperate well and achieve effective teamwork. Reason and evaluation can temper (add to, or change) emotional and instinct-motivated behaviour and combine with cooperation and teamwork so as to counter, and overcome, threats.

One has to be stronger than the enemy, socially as well as militarily. Essential is greater social as well as military strength. But the authoritarian (which includes military) mind has to be balanced to prevent it from taking over, has to be motivated towards 'good'.


Possessions, Ownership and Riches

Ownership {20} is the right to possess something and to decide what is to be done with it. If I own something it belongs to me and I decide what is to be done with it. An example would be owning a house.

Possession is having something in one's custody as distinct from owning it. If I possess something it belongs to another but I can decide how to use it. An example would be renting a house.

Another example would be deciding what to do with my money (ownership) or deciding and controlling the use of money belonging to someone else (possession).


And considering the right to ownership, two questions need to be considered. Namely where does the right come from and how is it exercised.


The right to own property varies among societies. Ownership laws which assign ownership 'rights' to owners have been devised by the owners themselves or by those who serve them. {21}

Ownership of land and means of production, of funds and wealth, has always been accumulated at someone else's expense. All belonged to the community, belonged to all alike. And this is what Chapter 5 of Genesis appears to be saying.


A human right is a something one may legally or morally claim, is the state of being entitled to a privilege or immunity or authority to act. Human rights are those held to be claimable by any living person, apply to all living people. Every living person is entitled to them.


So ownership of land and means of production, of funds and wealth, rightfully belongs to the community, belongs to all alike, is a human right. Those who have accumulated them have only possession, which means they can use and apply them but may do so only on behalf of, and for the benefit of, the community and that they are accountable to the community for the way in which they do so. {22}

Hence we have the use of possessions as long as we use them to provide a good living for our family, and beyond that for the benefit of the community. For the benefit of others less able or fortunate, for the benefit of the community around us and then for the benefit of communities abroad.

But we may only support those who themselves genuinely support our benevolent ideals and principles and their application and who themselves live and act accordingly, who behave humanely. <14>



Social System and Social Laws of the Bible


Government; Positions of Trust, Responsibility and Authority; Hierarchies

Here we are looking at the laws of the Pentateuch which control the behaviour and limit the power {4, 5} of government, of top executives and of the establishment, of those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority. The Pentateuch {11} leaves little doubt about what they must not do.


Positive laws tell what has to be done so as to create a strong and just society, point the way ahead towards greater strength, freedom and a good way of life.

Negative laws (prohibitions) state what must not be done and such laws protect the people from oppression and exploitation, from the anti-social behaviour of others, safeguard the people's strength and freedom. {5}

So the laws quoted here protect people and safeguard their strength and freedom.


These laws of government relate to 'rulers', apply to all in positions of trust, responsibility or authority, no matter whether secular, religious or military, no matter what the hierarchy or organisation.

Such people may not amass servants and may not oppress the people for their own benefit. They may not amass possessions and wealth, may not grasp power or behave promiscuously.

In other words, they may not put themselves above others by grasping power, may not satisfy personal desires at the expense of others.


And a ruler (person in position of trust, responsibility or authority) has to follow these laws and abide by them every day if he wishes 'to prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children'. For 'kingdom' read 'position'.


So the Pentateuch laws quoted here protect people and safeguard their strength and freedom by laying down that those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority may not grasp power, may not oppress the people, may not behave promiscuously, may not enrich themselves.


Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments {8} <13> are so important and are so well known because it is behaviour in accordance with these laws which is the basis for people trusting each other and so for people cooperating and working well with each other.

When Moses brought the tables of the law he brought 'freedom upon the tables'. It is the Ten Commandments as a whole which underlie freedom, independence and strength to oppose and resist oppression. Wherever there is any spiritual and material freedom today it exists because people followed these laws (rules) of behaviour and it exists to the extent to which they do so. {4}

In other words, following the provisions of the law results in freedom and ensures it, ensures strength and security.


Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship <1> {4}

In 'Behaviour and Consequences (Genesis Chapter 9)' we saw that a covenant is an agreement in which each of the parties undertakes duties and obligations towards the other. God promises that certain things will be so, as long as human beings fulfil their obligations under the covenant, as long as human beings follow God's laws, as long as they behave like human beings.

In the language of religion the Pentateuch later on states a fundamental scientific law, the Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship {4} <1>, which is that the consequences of keeping or not keeping the Pentateuch laws are inescapable, that what happens to one is in the end the inevitable result of one's own behaviour. Also clearly stated is that this is a scientific law which was defined and stated using the language of religion so that people would benefit from knowing the effects (consequences) of their behaviour. The relationship is stated in precise terms. History {5} and social science {17} confirm it.

We are told that the Cause-and-effect Relationship applies to all without exception and at all times, wherever one may be, regardless of type of government, form of religion or social system or country. It applies whether you like it or not, agree or disagree.

The consequences of one's behaviour are detailed both ways, clearly and powerfully illustrating intermediate stages between the two ends of the scale, and we are told that the process is reversible. Increasingly disregarding the Law results in greater suffering and oppression, increasingly behaving according to the Law results in greater freedom and a better life.


The relationship applies to all. It is stated in a way which enables people to benefit from knowing the effects of their behaviour, even if they do not understand the underlying interrelation.

Freedom and independence of mind and person and the quality of life depend on one's behaviour. The consequences of observing the Law are described and so are those of disregarding the Law. The consequences of one's behaviour are inevitable, inescapable. Keeping or not keeping the Pentateuch laws has consequences which cannot be avoided.

Those who behave according to the law have good and satisfying lives, gain social and military strength. Behaviour which is contrary to the law lowers the quality of life, increases internal stress and conflict to the point of social disruption and military weakness.


Social Laws, Social System

It is the social laws of the Pentateuch which in effect state that all are equal, that no person may exploit another or oppress so as to exploit. All have the right to be free and independent masters of their own fate and there has to be a system of social security which guarantees not just freedom from need but also protection against loss of material and spiritual independence. In effect, oppression can be and has to be resisted, struggled against and opposed.

The essential social provisions of Pentateuch law are clear and to the point. This is what the Pentateuch lays down as a matter of law {4}:

  1. Every seventh day is a day of rest for all, for those who are employed as well as for those who employ. Work stops on the weekly day of rest, the Sabbath, to let those who labour have a regular day of rest. On this day the servant is as free as the master, the worker is as free as the employer. The weekly day of rest has spread and benefits almost all the civilised world.

  2. The community has to provide ('lend') money to those who need it, free of interest.

  3. All such loans, if outstanding, are to be cancelled every seventh year.

  4. The country's wealth, and this applies particularly to productive capital such as land, belongs equally to all and needs to be shared out. Inhabitants are also entitled to have a sabbatical year every seventh year. During this sabbatical year they are entitled to be freed from work at the expense of the community.

Every person is entitled as a matter of right to social security. This means that people are entitled to be supported by the community not only when they fall on hard times but also to maintain their independence as independent breadwinners for their families. For example, the community has to provide backup funds to those who need them and they have to be provided as and when required.

To prevent people being exploited through their need these funds have to be provided without charging interest and such 'loans' are cancelled every seventh year if the borrower has been unable to repay them.


The community supports the individual but only if the individual in turn supports the community. Those supported by the community are under obligation to support others in need of support, in due course and when able to do so, to share with others who are in need. Where need includes the need for capital to secure their operation, to achieve the general standard of living and quality of life.

It is those who themselves keep and apply these benevolent social laws, who keep Pentateuch law, who are entitled to these rights.



Explanations, Comments, Notes and Analysis

On the whole and when relevant I have tried to present the information by indenting as follows:

As stated in Genesis
Explanations and comments
Current knowledge, science
Additional notes, comments and quotations

For a quick overview, read the first two, namely 'As stated in Genesis' and 'Explanations and comments'.


Appendix 1:

Descendants of Seth (Genesis Chapter 5)

1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;

2 male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.

Although the story is told about individuals, its content relates to the life form (human beings) as a whole. {2}

3 And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth.

And begot 'a son': This phrase is used only twice in this chapter. See v29 below.

'a son in his own likeness': That is, 'in the likeness of God' (See v1 above).

God is here referred to as God (creator), the creator of all that is good, as in Genesis Chapter 1. {3}

The text in Chapter 1 of Genesis draws a distinction between image and likeness, that is between 'appearance' and 'discernment and understanding'. And man (male and female) are there recorded as having been created only in God's image, alike to God only in appearance. <9>

And 'Adam' (male and female) are here stated to have been created also in the likeness of God. That is, they know good and evil and can distinguish between them (Gen 3: 5, 22).

Hence this Chapter 5 of Genesis is about how human beings multiplied and behaved, is about the descendants of Seth who are human beings.

So we are here looking at the development and behaviour of human beings who know of, can distinguish between and can choose between, good and evil.


Having told us that we are considering human beings from now on, Chapter 5 of Genesis continues:

4 And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters.

5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years and he died.


6 And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh.

7 And Seth lived after he begot Enosh eight hundred and seven years; and begot sons and daughters.

8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years; and he died.


Then follow statements similar to v6-8 for a number of generations, from Seth to Lamech, with different ages and time spans. However, there are some exceptions and these are given below in the sequence in which they occur.


9 And Enosh lived ... and begot Kenan. ...

12 And Kenan lived ... and begot Mahalalel. ...

15 And Mahalalel lived ... and begot Jared. ...

18 And Jared lived ... and begot Enoch. ...


21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah.

22 And Enoch walked with God (as creator) after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.

'And Enoch walked with God': Compare with Gen 6: 9 'Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with god'. (With God (as creator). So the phrase signifies that Enoch walked in God's ethical ways. {13}

23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years.

Stated as a rule that all the days of so-and-so WERE (vajiyu). But in two places the text states 'AND WAS' (singular) (vajehi). (This v23 about Enoch, and v31 about Lamech). {13}
24 And Enoch walked with God (as creator), and he was not; for God (as creator) took him.

So Enoch followed and applied that which was 'good'. Did not harm other beings, did not domineer, exploit, oppress, use his strength against others on his own behalf.


25 And Methuselah lived ... and begot Lamech. ...

27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years; and he died.

"... 969 years after his birth the Flood came upon the world. This implies that he perished in the flood. {13}


28 And Lamech lived a hundred eighty and two years, and begot a son.

29 And he called his name Noah, saying: 'This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which comes from the ground which the Lord has cursed.'

And begot 'a son': Pointedly used only twice in this chapter of Genesis. In v3 above, Seth represents a forward move, referring to the evolution (creation) of human beings. Here in v28 Noah represents another forward move, referring to human beings after the Flood as beginning to become conscious of what is 'good' and what is 'evil' so as to choose good instead of evil.

'which the Lord has cursed' refers to Gen 3: 17 on expulsion from Eden, refers to life after evolving into human beings. In Gen 3: 17 the ground is cursed by God (as originator).

But here (Gen 5: 29) states that God (as cause) has cursed, meaning that it is happening, that it is so. <5>

It is a tough struggle and hard work to obtain a living from the ground.

There appears to be an intended parallelism with Gen 4: 26 where we see that to Seth is born a son and then began men (another life form) to call on God (as cause) for help. They (early human beings, Homo erectus) were struggling to obtain a living against pressure of another life form (human beings).

The problem here in v29 is not overcoming another life form but the tough struggle to obtain a living against a harsh environment.


'This same (this person Noah) shall comfort us':

The text should have either 'this one WILL GIVE US REST' (yenichenu) or, (nachman) - 'this one WILL BRING US COMFORT' (yenachamenu). {13}

That is, there are two possible meanings of the Hebrew text. (1) 'will give us rest' from work, or reduce the work. (2) 'will bring us comfort', adding something.

'This same shall comfort us': The bringing of comfort may refer to bringing comfort from internal pressures, possibly due to there being less evil and more good in the world after the flood.

30 And Lamech lived after he begot Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begot sons and daughters.

31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years; and he died.

Stated as a rule that all the days of so-and-so WERE (vajiyu). But in two places the text states 'AND WAS' (singular) (vajehi). (This v31 about Lamech and v23 about Enoch). {13}

32 And Noah was five hundred years old; and Noah begot Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Instead of 'and Noah lived' the wording in verse 32 is 'and Noah was ... old' {13}. So presumably this statement about Noah is to be regarded as referring to an individual.


Appendix 2:

The Flood


Genesis: Chapter 6: 5-8

The English text refers three times to 'man'. In each case the Hebrew word is 'ha-adam' meaning life form, here human beings, humans. {2}

In each of these four verses God is referred to by the Hebrew designation 'Yhwh', that is as cause, as cause of what happened. In other words, this is what happened. {3}

5 And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

Human beings are capable of comparing good with evil and of choosing good, but the thoughts people are imagining are evil continually. Human beings as a whole are using their thinking and evaluating abilities towards evil, towards evil behaviour.

6 And it repented the Lord that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.

7 And the Lord said: 'I will blot out man (ha-adam meaning life form) whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.'

8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord.

Some sources maintain that the flood was brought about because of what is recorded in the first eight verses of this chapter of Genesis.
Life forms are evolving towards greater viciousness (evolution by the survival of the strongest, most vicious), human beings are misusing and exploiting each other for personal gain. So they were wiped out, Noah was the exception.


Genesis 6: 9 to 8: 19

We have just seen that human beings were more corrupt and evil than their more beast-like predecessors and that the flood occurred.

In the remaining verses of this chapter God is referred to as God (as creator, as creator of all that is good) {3}. So we are told that the flood is a development towards good, a step ahead in the struggle for good against evil, for good against violence and corruption, that evil does not go unpunished, is being punished so as to control and overcome it.

The different designations used for God again add meaning to these chapters. {3}

9 These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and whole-hearted; Noah walked with God (eth-ha'Elohim).

'Noah walked with God.': "... walking with God means walking in those ways in which God walks, namely, in the ways of righteousness and justice; ..." {13}

10 And Noah begot three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11 And the earth was corrupt before God (ha'Elohim), and the earth was filled with violence.

'Chamas': Translated as 'violence'.

"All the commentators, both ancient and modern, are accustomed to explain the word to mean lawlessness perpetrated by force. ... . In the rabbinic idiom, as in modern Hebrew, the word 'chamas' connotes a deed of outrage and violence. ... (but) the reference is to wickedness generally, to unrighteousness as a whole" and should be rendered unrighteousness. {13}

12 And God (Elohim) saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth.

13 And God (Elohim) said to Noah: 'The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

...
Noah is then told how to build the ark.

17 And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish.

18 But I will establish My covenant with you; ...

It is God (as creator of all that is good) who shows Noah, who has behaved righteously, how to survive.

...
Noah is then told who is to be saved.
All life forms are to be wiped out with the exception of Noah and those with him. This is a step towards greater 'good'.


Genesis Chapter 7:

1 And the Lord (Yhwh) said to Noah: 'Come you and all your house into the ark; for you have I seen righteous before Me in this generation.

...

9 ... as God (Elohim) commanded Noah.

...

16 And they that went in, ... , as God (Elohim) commanded him; and the Lord (Yhwh) shut him in.

And so it happened.
In other words, the Flood happened just as God (as creator of all that is good) had told Noah.

...

24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.


Genesis Chapter 8

God (as creator, as creator of that which is good) ends the flood and tells Noah to leave the ark and for the life forms to repopulate the planet.


1 And God (Elohim) remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God (Elohim) made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged;

...

16 And God (Elohim) spoke to Noah, saying:

17 'Go forth from the ark, ...

18 And Noah went forth, and ...

19 every beast, every ... , went forth out of the ark.


Genesis 8: 20-22

What is stated is that since then no comparable planet-wide disaster has happened (see v21) as a consequence of the thoughts human beings are imagining being evil from youth. That is, as a consequence of the thoughts arising from their imagination being evil from youth.

20 And Noah builded an altar to the Lord (la'Yhwh); ...

In Hebrew, le ha Yhwh becomes la'Yhwh

21 And the Lord (Yhwh) smelled the sweet savour; and the Lord (Yhwh) said in His heart: 'I will not again curse the ground any more for man's (haadam) sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.

Lord (Yhwh) 'said in His heart': Relates to thoughts.

Thinking:

'loh osiph': Literally 'I shall not continue'. Here refers to the cursing of the ground. 'any more': more than it is already cursed. (13 Cassuto II, p119)

'I shall not continue' to make life more difficult

man's (ha-adam) sake: because of human beings

for the imagination of man's heart (haadam) is evil from his youth:

Because the thoughts of human beings (which arise from their imagination) are evil from youth

'smite' rendered 'destroy' by Cassuto.

'I will never again destroy': I shall not destroy a second time {13}

Since then there has not been another ...
In other words, since then life as a whole has not been destroyed for a second time because the thoughts of human beings are evil from youth.


22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.'

It may be that the list seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night refers to essential environmental characteristics on which depends the continuation of human life on the planet.

So these are happening and the earth is remaining.


Appendix 3:

Behaviour and Consequences (Genesis Chapter 9)

1 And God (Elohim) blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them: 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.

2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.

Human beings are to be the most advanced life form.

3 Every moving thing that lives shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.

Now including the flesh of all living creatures (compared with Gen 1: 29 which permitted only vegetarian food). {13}

Human beings may eat all that grows and all that moves and lives.

4 Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat.

Animals must not be eaten while alive.

5 And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man (ha-adam), even at the hand of every man's brother (ish achiv), will I require the life of man (ha-adam).

... of every beast ...: The Hebrew word for beast can also mean 'living creature'.

'even at the hand of every man's brother' quoted by Cassuto as 'and of man, of every man's brother'. {13}

'every man's brother': Hebrew 'ish achiv' meaning 'every human being'.

Meaning of Hebrew words for 'will I require' is 'will I demand'. Meaning 'I hold responsible'.

'blood of your lives': Life

God (as creator) says in effect 'Life is mine and there is an accounting for every human life. Human life must not be taken by animals nor must it be taken by other human beings.

6 Whoso sheds man's (ha-adam) blood, by man (ba'adam) shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God (Elohim) made He man.

In Hebrew, be ha-adam becomes ba'adam

'by man': By the hand of man {13}

Whatever or whoever takes the life of a human being, their life is to be taken in return by other human beings.

Basic principle, part of basic constitution. Later legal frameworks to establish facts, circumstances, responsibility. Man-made legislation can be fair or unfair, just or corrupt (such as one law for the poor and another for the rich).

7 And you, be you fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.'

8 And God (Elohim) spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying:

9 'As for Me, behold, I establish My covenant with you, and with your seed after you;

A covenant is an agreement in which each of the parties undertakes duties and obligations towards the other.

It is not a one-sided promise or obligation.

'As for Me, behold': On my part (as long as you do your part, as long as you behave like human beings), I ...

10 and with every ...

11 And I will establish My covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.'

'I will establish My covenant (my rules of behaviour) with you; (so that) neither shall ...'

12 And God (Elohim) said: 'This is the token of the covenant ...

...

16 '... that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God (Elohim) and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.'

17 And God (Elohim) said to Noah: 'This is the token of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth.'



Notes, References and Links


Notes

< 1>     The Cause-and-Effect Relationship is listed both in biblical language and in plain English in Appendix 4 of {4}, with detailed references to the Pentateuch text.
     
< 2>   Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses <3, 7>
     
< 3>   The Pentateuch text used in this report is generally that of The Soncino Chumash (Bible) {14} which consists of Hebrew text, English translation and selected commentaries. But archaic words such as 'thou' and 'shalt' were changed to 'you' and 'shall'.
     
< 4>   See {14}: Commentary by Rashi
     
< 5>   See {3}.
     
< 6>   See {6} for another detailed example of use of names in ancient Jewish religious writings to convey hidden important information. There see section on 'The Five Pairs (Zugot)' and Table 2 'Names of the Pairs').
     
< 7>  

The 'Torah' (Pentateuch, Five Books of Moses) consists only of the five books of Moses.

(Those wishing to give other writings an appearance of greater authority refer to these other writings as if they were part of the Torah. Those doing so are spreading a kind of misleading political propaganda.)

     
< 8>   Genesis: First volume (book) of Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses) <3>.
     
< 9>   In {1}, see comments to (Gen 1: 24-31) in 'Stage 6 (the sixth day)'
     
<10>   A good example is the hidden way in which the Talmud refers to Christians and early Christian beliefs. In {7} see what is recorded about R. Johanan b. Zakkai's discple Joshua b. Hananiah
     
<11>   In {1}, see discussion and comments on (Gen 4: 7)
     
<12>   In {1}, see Appendix 2: 'Creation of Planet and Life; Evolution of Human Beings'.
     
<13>   The Ten Commandments are listed both in biblical language and in plain English in Appendix 5 of {4}
     
<14>   See 'Social Laws, Social System'
     
<15>   In Appendix 1, see note to v27.


References and Links

{ 1}     The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 2}   Meaning and Intent of Genesis: Essential Notes on Hebrew Grammar
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 3}   Meaning and Significance of the Names of God in Genesis
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 4}   Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 5}   History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 6}   At the Time of Jesus, The Truth about Hillel and his Times
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 7}   One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{ 8}   Deut 5, 6-18; Exod 20, 2-14
     
{ 9}   How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{10}   Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{11}   Deut 17, 14-20
     
{12}   ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{13}   A Commentary on the Book of Genesis.
Part 1: From Adam to Noah;
Part 2: From Noah to Abraham.
By U. Cassuto (1944)
Translated from the Hebrew by Israel Abrahams (1961)
The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
     
{14}   The Soncino Chumash
Edited by Rev. Dr. A. Cohen
Soncino Press, 1947.
     
{15}   The Will to Work: What People Struggle to Achieve
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{16}   Motivation Summary
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{17}   'Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{18}   Style of Management and Leadership
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{19}   Role of Managers Under Different Styles of Management
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{20}   Understanding How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{21}   What People are Struggling Against: How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann
     
{22}   Co-operatives and Co-operation: Causes of Failure, Guidelines for Success
http://www.solhaam.org/
Manfred Davidmann



Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview


The Site Overview page has links to all individual Subject Index Pages which between them list the works by Manfred Davidmann which are available on the Internet, with short descriptions and links for downloading.

To see the Site Overview page, click Overview

Back to Contents list


Line

Copyright    ©    March 2000    Manfred Davidmann
All rights reserved worldwide.

History
13/03/00 Work Completed
01/07/00 To Website
03/06/01 Added 'Overview'