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Church and State, Government and Religion:

Judaism, Christianity and Islam

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By Manfred Davidmann



Contents

Overview
Introduction
Pentateuch
Liberation Theology
Judaism
The Monarchy (David and Solomon)
Maccabean Dynasty (The Hasmoneans)
Rulers and Establishment ('state', government)
Belief and Practice ('church', religion)
Christianity
Jesus Taught
Paul's Ideology
Matthew's Record (Gospels)
Christian Canon
Liberation Theology's 'Two Types of Christianity'
Islam
Arab Life at the Time of Mohammed
Mohammed Taught
Findings
Conclusions

Relevant Current and Associated Works
Notes <..>
References {..} and Links

Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview



Overview: Church and State, Government and Religion

This report is one of a series, which together lay bare the controversies between church and state, between religious belief and practice on the one hand, and the government on the other. Each work is self-standing but together they provide the knowledge needed for understanding the causes of conflicts and point to solving them.

The works in this series bring together findings and conclusions from Manfred Davidmann's published reports and provide new knowledge and insights, exploring their subject in depth, generally in advance of current knowledge.

1     The God-given Human Rights, Social Laws and Social System
           

A comprehensive statement of the God-given human rights which underlie all freedom, liberty and independence. They are the foundation of the main religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and they underlie and determine a good life of high quality.

         
2     Judaism, Christianity and Islam
       

Shows that underlying Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the Pentateuch's benevolent and egalitarian social laws and social system. Reveals for each religion the controversies and conflicts between church and state, between beliefs and practice.

         
3     Social Concept (Policies) of the Russian Orthodox Church
       

Reviews the Russian Orthodox Church's social and church-state policies. The church is shown to be quoting out of context from Paul's letter to the Romans, in relation to what seems to be a central core teaching on Christian church-state relationships.

         
4     Religion, Government and Education
       

Illustrates conflicting aims and interests of state and church with reference to teaching evolution (creationism) and teaching immorality (state-condoned promiscuity). Relative authority of Bible, common law, case law, religious leaderships, judges.

         
5     Social Policies (Doctrine) of the Roman Catholic Church: An Evaluation
       

The essential and fundamental social doctrines are evaluated in plain and meaningful language. About important principles of faith in relation to globalisation and benevolent church-state-people policies. Aims of the Church's doctrines and the consequences for Catholics. Challenging decisions are needed.

         
6     Creationism and Intelligent Design, Evolution, Education or Indoctrination
       

Conflicts have arisen because parts of Genesis have been mistranslated or misinterpreted.

The 'Creationism' hypothesis apparently assumes that the resulting erroneous text correctly states God's deeds. And the 'Intelligent Design' hypothesis apparently assumes that the same erroneous text correctly states the deeds of some other supernatural being.


Manfred Davidmann's research and discoveries showed and proved that the source text of Genesis corresponds in the major steps to the order in which the earth and life are known to have been formed and developed. Described is the formation of the earth and early plant life, and evolution by the 'survival of the fittest'. The evolution from reptilian to mammalian instincts, feelings and behaviour is clearly stated, as is the evolution and corresponding behaviour, feeling and thinking of human beings from humanoids (animals resembling humans) through Homo erectus (early man) to Homo sapiens (human beings, ourselves).

There is no conflict or contradiction between what is recorded in the source Genesis text and our scientific knowledge about evolution of human beings and of our planet.



Introduction

The world in which we live at present is in turmoil, in a mess. So we want to know why and what can be done about it.

We begin by looking at church and state, government and religion, at their aims and purpose, at the conflicts and confrontations between them. And start by describing what words such as state and religion mean and imply, as follows:

Government
The group or organisation ruling a country or conducting its affairs. It can also refer to the government's style of management (authoritarian or participative, dictatorship or democracy).

Religion
A system of faith and worship, based on belief in the existence of a benevolent God, usually expressed by believers living according to its doctrine (principles, rules of behaviour, customs).

State
Somewhat vague term which refers to the combination of government and the community (country, population) being governed. Its use ignores important distinctions between people, government and the government's style of management, and their often conflicting interests. For example it does not distinguish between a government which serves its people and one which serves a country's rulers.

Church
Refers to the religion's clergy, or to its hierarchy. It can also refer to the religion's organisation, its decision-taking processes, the doctrine it follows and the policies it applies.


But then there are different kinds of states and different kinds of churches {10}:

Some states consist of governments which serve the rulers by oppressing the people so that they can be exploited and such states stifle opposition and protest. Here those at the top and their experts tell people what they should do and have to do.

Other states consist of governments where those who govern serve the people and are accountable to them, where decisions are made at the lowest possible level by referendum with experts explaining the consequences both ways when a decision has to be made.

Similarly some churches serve rulers and in effect condition their people into gladly serving the rulers, into gladly allowing themselves to be exploited, the general approach then being 'gladly accept the tough life you are leading, the reward will come in a next life'.

And other churches preach that it is the will of God that all people are equal, that no person may exploit another, that it is the role of the establishment to serve the people.


The history of the religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam illustrates the underlying conflict and the present-day confrontations between church and state, government and religion, and points to ways of solving (healing) them.



Pentateuch {3}

What stands out is that human beings, guided by God, learned the difference between the brutal behaviour of their beastly ancestors, and the humane socially-responsible behaviour of human beings.

Following a fundamental revelation, their struggles and achievements were recorded in the Pentateuch <1>, as were the social system and social rules of behaviour which underlie a good life of high quality combining freedom, independence and liberty <2>. Positive and constructive, rewarding what is good, punishing that which is inhuman, providing social security and a good life of high quality.


The whole history of the people and the essential social laws of behaviour and social system, were then recorded in the Pentateuch which has been handed down unaltered to this day. <1>

The beliefs of Judaism, Christianity and Islam include the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch and each of these religions experienced major conflicts and strife between church and state, religion and government. The struggle between them is about the application in our everyday lives of the social provisions of the Pentateuch.

So first we look at some key social laws of the Pentateuch, and describe its social system, to illustrate what the confrontation between 'church' and 'state' is about. <3>


Social and Economic Security

All persons have the right to be free and independent masters of their own fate and no person may oppress or exploit another. Because people can be exploited through their needs there has to be a system of social and economic security which guarantees freedom from needs and so protects people from becoming dependent on others for essential income, protects against loss of material and spiritual independence.

This is what is laid down as a matter of law {6}:

  1. The community has to provide ('lend') money to those who need it, free of interest.
  2. All such loans, if outstanding, are to be cancelled every seventh year.


Trustful Co-operation (Ten Commandments)

The Ten Commandments <4> are so important and are so well known because behaviour in accordance with these rules is the basis for people trusting each other and so for people co-operating and working well with each other. The Ten Commandments underlie freedom, independence and strength to oppose and resist oppression. Wherever there is any independence of the mind and material freedom today it exists because people followed these rules of behaviour and it exists to the extent to which they do so. {6}

Take these two commandments (principles of behaviour):
You must not steal.
You must not desire anything which belongs to your neighbour.

Much trust and community friendliness is gained when people follow these principles.

But consider that these laws apply equally to the rich and powerful. It is also the rich and powerful who must not steal from the poor even the little which the poor have. It is the rich and powerful who must not cast longing glances at what little the rest of us possess, it is the rich and powerful who must not aim to gain at our expense.


Government and Management

The laws of the Pentateuch control the behaviour and limit the power of 'rulers', that is of government, of top executives and of the establishment, of those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority, no matter whether secular, religious or military, no matter what the hierarchy or organisation. {6-7}. The Pentateuch {11} states clearly what they must not do.

They may not amass servants and may not oppress the people. They may not amass possessions and wealth, may not grasp power or behave promiscuously. In other words, they may not put themselves above others by grasping power, may not satisfy personal desires at the expense of others.

And a ruler (person in position of trust, responsibility or authority) has to follow these laws and abide by them every day if he wishes 'to prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children'. For 'kingdom' read 'position' and include 'influence'.


These Pentateuch laws lay down that those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority must not oppress people so as to increase their own possessions and power. These laws forbid personal gain from the misuse of authority, wealth or position. Those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority may not grasp power, may not oppress the people, may not behave promiscuously, may not gain wives or wealth. {6}


Equality and Ownership

The country's wealth <5> belongs equally to all community members and needs to be shared out family by family {6}, where 'family' is a life-long single union {4} between husband and wife. With shares updated at regular intervals of between three and not more than five calendar years <6>. Each receives a share of the community's total net assets <7>, their 'Asset Share'. An Asset Share cannot be sold but the owner has the right to determine its use and to the resulting benefits.

But only those are supported who themselves genuinely support the Pentateuch's benevolent ideals and principles and their application and who themselves live and act accordingly, who behave humanely. {6}



Liberation Theology    {5}

According to Liberation theologians, Christian belief and practice ranges along a continuous scale between two kinds, one at each end of the scale.

At one end is the kind which in effect serves the rulers and their establishment, those in authority such as a government or multinational, those who oppress and exploit. It teaches that the reward for this life's hardships will be a better life in a life to come.

At the other end is another kind of Christianity which bases its belief and practice on compassion for the poor and according to Christian texts which side with the poor against the rich, with the poor against the oppressor.

Liberation theologians advocate the second kind of Christianity which is one of compassion and leadership in the struggle against oppressors, in the struggle for a better life here and now in this life.

How come there are such widely differing kinds of belief and practice?


Among deprived Christian communities such as disadvantaged African negroes, South American indians, Indian indians and Filipinos, we now hear voices which distance themselves from ruler-serving Christian beliefs. We see them arguing for a Christian belief which puts equality and independence among their most important goals. And wherever there is extreme poverty and suffering and pain you are likely to find Christians who are struggling on the side of the oppressed. Such as priests who provide encouragement and guidance to oppressed and suffering people in their struggle for a better life against the ruling establishment, against established ruling oppressors, doing so at much risk and without thought of personal gain.


The underlying teachings of the Jewish and Christian religions are based on God's teachings as recorded in the Pentateuch. All people are considered equal and entitled to share in the wealth of their community. No wonder that 'it is in countries following the social teachings of Christianity and Judaism ('Christian' countries, democracies) that people have the highest standard of living, have lives of high quality', gained as the result of past and present struggle against those who wish to exploit, against those who wish to oppress so as to exploit.


However, what happened in the past was that those who ruled, and those who wished to rule and exploit, changed patterns of belief and observance, doing so from within, being opposed by the people with varying degrees of success. This explains why there appear to be different kinds of Christian belief and practice.

And next we look at what happened to Judaism, Christianity and Islam in the past, at the conflicts and confrontations between their teachings and the ruling establishment of the day, at these interactions between church and state, religion and government.

We now look at how the Pentateuch's rules and their application were changed in the past, why they were changed and by whom, who gained and who lost, at the extent to which present belief and practice differs fundamentally from the revealed word of God. A fascinating journey which will take us through Judaism to Christianity and Islam, and then to life and living in our times.



Judaism    {7}


The Monarchy (David and Solomon)

At the beginning of this period the Hebrew tribes are scattered and on their own, each more or less fighting its own battles and looking after its own interests. We see people enjoying freedom and following the Pentateuch's laws.

Then we see the tribes coming together under a single central rule with combined forces. The opposing foreign tribes were defeated. The result was a country and a people which were united and powerful. Military success went hand in hand with bringing the tribes together in one united country

The successful military leader, King David, ruled the country. Secular and religious authority were apparently concentrated in his hands.

Then we see those who rule using their power for their own benefit and to impose their rule. We see the emergence of those who grasp power and rule and then weaken Pentateuch law so as to rule more forcefully, so as to oppress, so as to exploit the people. This led inevitably to internal confrontation and conflict which divided the country.

During the period of the monarchy, that is during the period of Saul, David and Solomon, we see central military authority being more effective in an emergency and see the military leader subsequently taking over the administration, taking over the government. This is followed by increasing centralisation of power and the formation of an establishment (secular and religious) which serves the source of power and is used to oppress the people.

What we see is increasing centralisation of power, increasing corruption and oppression, increasing enslavement of the people with consequent social stress and subsequent destruction.


The popular leader, initially supported by those who were oppressed and in need, became powerful. He started to use the people for personal gain. But David ruled for 40 years and became rich and powerful. He had properties throughout the land and took concubines and wives. He instituted a 'levy', a form of conscription.


King Solomon, greatly praised, of such wonderful wisdom, of great power, wealth and horses, having many wives. But his reign was immediately followed by the kingdom splitting into two kingdoms which fought each other, which largely disregarded Pentateuch law until both kingdoms were destroyed and the people exiled to Babylon. Much has been written about Solomon and his glorious reign, his wisdom and his riches. But Jewish scripture and other ancient sources look at his reign from the point of view of the people over whom he ruled and tell another and completely different story. {7}


Solomon continued the process David had started. Under his reign the king's power over the people increased. It is plainly told, consistent and to the point.

He ignored basic Pentateuch law and weakened its application so as to weaken resistance to oppression, so as to oppress the people.


He started to oppress the people just as soon as he was unopposed and had undisputed authority.


We are being told that he obtained his wealth by taxing the people, that this was paid as an annual tax and that this was a heavy burden on the people.

He instituted both tax collecting and a compulsory labour service.

King Solomon built the first Temple and he also built a palace for himself.

It took seven years to build the Temple and after that it took thirteen years to build Solomon's palace. Solomon's palace occupied over four times the groundspace which the Temple occupied. {7}


The king soon ignored the laws of the Pentateuch which clearly states that he should not oppress the people so as to increase his own possessions and power, that he should not put himself above the people and so enrich himself. The Pentateuch warns against him oppressing people so as to multiply his power (horses), it prohibits his taking a large number of wives and the amassing of silver and gold.

We are told that he broke the 'kingship' laws, the laws of government which protect the people.

The whole record of Solomon's reign shows a ruler who is more concerned with personal wealth and power than with leading the people towards a better life.


Solomon died after he had reigned for forty years and Rehoboam his son took over.

And Rehoboam answered the people roughly and said 'My father made your yoke heavy, I will add to your yoke; my father punished you with whips, but I will punish you with scorpions'. So he told the people he would oppress them even more than his father Solomon had done. {7}

Oppression increased during Solomon's reign and once again it was the internal conflicts which broke up the country and so destroyed it.


Israel then rebelled against the descendants of David, and installed Jeroboam king over all Israel. However, the tribe of Judah followed the descendants of David. In this way Solomon's kingdom split up into two separate kingdoms, namely Judah and Israel (Samaria).

Rehoboam (Solomon's son) ruled over Judah, and Jeroboam ruled over Israel (Samaria). Jeroboam in effect abrogated the application of the Pentateuch laws.

The application of the Pentateuch, the basic constitution which protects the people, had been abrogated and the people were worse off than before, had even less protection against the ruler and his establishment, against the misuse of his power.


It seems to me that during the period of the monarchy and of the two kingdoms there was a continuous struggle between the forces which supported God, Judaism and the people, and those forces which supported central rule, the establishment and oppression of the people. It was the rulers who generally acted contrary to Jewish law and the Jewish religion seems to have been belittled, opposed and in some ways negated by them.

It would seem that religious and secular authority were in effect centred on the king (ruler) who soon ignored the God-given benevolent social provisions of the Pentateuch. Authority for belief and practice were combined in the person of the ruler who used his authority (power) for his own personal selfish gain and disregarded the very social laws and system for the application of which the Hebrew people had been fighting for and which underlay his success.


Maccabean Dynasty (The Hasmoneans)    <8> {7}

We know little about life in Israel during the period of about 300 years between the time of the return from Babylon and the time of the taking over of the country by the Seleucids in 198 BCE. We do know that religious observance was so important that they would not even defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath (the weekly day of rest) so as not to desecrate it.

The Seleucids robbed the Temple of its wealth and destroyed the walls of Jerusalem. They then attempted to paganise the country by brutal force. Those who observed the Jewish laws and customs were bitterly persecuted, pagan worship and practices were introduced into the Temple and they destroyed written records (scrolls) of the law whenever they could find them. The high priest Menelaus continued in office but served Jupiter.

Among the Jewish leadership were those who served the Seleucid rulers by offering greater annual taxes for the sake of obtaining personal power. They collected them from the people. At the same time they weakened and opposed the influence of the Jewish religion so as to weaken the people. It was of course the people who suffered and who became more and more discontented.


Rulers and Establishment ('state', government)    <8> {7}

Mattathias (a priest) rebelled against pagan worship. The people could stand no more and led first by Mattathias and then by his son Judah Maccabee they rebelled against the imposed vicious rule of the Seleucids.

To begin with all were united and struggled against the brutal oppression. They struggled for God (Pentateuch), freedom and the people. Against them were foreign invaders who believed in slavery and who were trying to impose their way of life through imposing their beliefs. {1}

The uprising had one central unifying purpose: to build a country in which Jewish people could live as Jews and practise their faith (in which they could apply the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch to their daily lives), and gained ground.

Mattathias, his five sons and his grandson John Hyrcanus led the uprising and supported one another. Single minded, the members of the Maccabean family were loyal to the brother who was in command at the time. What is known is that whenever the brother who was ruling at the time was either killed in battle or assassinated by the enemy, one of the other brothers simply stepped into his place, provided the required leadership and was in turn supported by the rest of the family.

Judah Maccabee was followed by Jonathan who in turn was followed by Simeon. The leadership of the three brothers covers a period of 30 years during which much of the country was freed. John Hyrcanus was able to build the country and complete the work the others had started.

Jonathan was appointed high priest about 8 years after taking over the leadership. Simeon was confirmed by the 'Great Assembly' as high priest, ethnarch (ruler) and commander of the Jewish people. Simeon's positions were to be hereditary.


Appointing Jonathan as high priest transferred religious authority and power to a secular leader. When the Great Assembly confirmed Simeon's position, a few years after he had assumed the leadership, they confirmed that religious and secular as well as military authority and power had been vested in one person and were to be hereditary.

What had happened was that able military and secular leadership absorbed religious authority and power. That this concentration of all authority and power in the hands of one person was to be permanent and later to be transferred to his descendants is an indication that the establishment of the day was already concerned with consolidating its own position.

Following the popular uprising for Judaism, for Jewish law and thus for freedom, the rulers formed a dynasty and a supporting establishment. They tasted power, meant to have it and meant to cling to it. Instead of serving God and people, the rulers battled for power with each other, allied themselves with foreign powers against each other. In so doing they divided the people and weakened all. The Jewish leadership, the Jewish establishment, disregarded the welfare of the people, disregarded Jewish law, disregarded the intent and purpose of Jewish law. <8> {7}

The religious hierarchy became subservient to the secular rulers, with the rulers presumably using the religious hierarchy to motivate and tranquillise their people. And two generations after the uprising we see increasing internal confrontation between believing (Pentateuch-observing) people on the one hand against oppressive rulers and their oppressing establishment on the other. {1}


I think that combining all power in the hands of a single ruler is against the spirit and intent of Jewish law as religious authority, which should serve God and the people, which should indicate direction and provide drive, may then too readily be misused to serve the establishment of the day instead of God and the people. {7}

The Jewish leadership, the Jewish establishment, supported centralised power, the oppressive ruling authority and its influence, since the ideas which were being imported helped them to oppress their own people. In so doing they disregarded the welfare of the people, disregarded Jewish law, disregarded the intent and purpose of Jewish law. {7}


The oppression of Jew by Jew, of the Jewish people by their own rulers and establishment, and the resulting struggle between them defeated both. It ended Maccabean rule, lost the land which had been gained, resulted in enormous hardship to the people. It resulted in the handing over of the country and its people to Herod and the subsequent introduction and popularisation by Herod of a foreign ideology based on slavery and supporting it. It was indeed this which the Maccabees had struggled against. {7}

Outstanding is that the people were unable to restrain their leaders. The result was total destruction of people and country, and the dispersion of the Jewish people. {7}


Belief and Practice ('church', religion)   {8-9}

During the five generations after that of Simeon, that is during the Maccabean dynasty, the secular rulers gained control of the religious hierarchy and of what was being taught. There was discontent and opposition, but what was taught became increasingly establishment-orientated, serving an oppressing and exploiting establishment. The social laws ceased to be applied as a comprehensive system, as a way of life.

After three generations we see very clearly increasing internal confrontation, a struggle between those wishing to apply the God-given benevolent egalitarian social laws and system on the one hand against oppressive rulers and their establishment-serving religious hierarchy on the other. What had been the people's leaders had become rulers who battled for power with each other, allied themselves with foreign powers against each other, betrayed their people to a foreign power for the sake of personal power and influence. In so doing they divided the people and weakened all. This was virtually the end of independence for the country. {7}

The Jewish establishment (secular and religious) had been and were changing the application of God's benevolent social laws so that 'the law was becoming like two laws'. They argued in religious terms about social and political policies. What are recorded are the arguments, misrepresentations and falsehoods (untruths) used by establishment-orientated religious 'scholars' <9> against applying the Pentateuch's benevolent legislation, in effect misleading the population into acquiescing to changes which served the ruling establishment, which enabled the establishment to oppress and exploit the population.

It was then decided to record what was happening so that future generations would become aware of what had happened and of who had been doing what to whom. They also wanted future generations to learn from the lessons of the past. Their record of what took place is called the Talmud which covers many subjects in many volumes. To compile the whole Talmud took about 400 years in Jerusalem and about 500 years in Babylon. The Talmud was then 'frozen' ('canonised'). {8-9}

You can see how the Talmud records the bitter feelings of ordinary people about what establishment-serving scholars were doing to Pentateuch and people. And when some scholars attempted to provide their own statements with an authority they did not have, the practice was scathingly condemned in the Talmud. {9}

The Talmud describes how the God-serving religious hierarchy was replaced by an establishment-serving religious hierarchy {8}, how the people felt about this {9} and the subsequent antisocial changes to belief and practice. This is conclusively recorded in two different and separate ways which confirm each other. But Rabbinical Judaism (today's Judaism) does not teach this and so propagates the establishment's revisionist version of Jewish belief and practice. {8} <10>

Rabbinical Judaism (today's Judaism) teaches, and Jewish belief and practice follows, the Jewish establishment's version of belief and practice. This version has the essential core benevolent social laws bypassed and edited out from observance, and is followed by Jews at the present time.


We saw that the religious scholars were serving the rulers ('state', government) instead of serving God and people ('church', religion).


And saw the history of the two main confrontations, of the struggle, between the Jewish rulers ('state', government, establishment) and the people, from the recording of the Pentateuch to the birth of Christianity.

This struggle was about position, influence and control over communities, about changing God-given benevolent rules of behaviour so that people could be oppressed and exploited.

It changed Judaism, determined the fate of the Jewish people and gave rise to Christianity.

And we saw that attempts to argue against the rulers and their establishment were by themselves unable to change the course of events.



Christianity    {1}


Jesus Taught

A remnant of Jews kept alive the knowledge of the social laws of the Pentateuch. They gained motivation, numbers and strength by rallying round and following the teachings of Jesus (Teacher of Righteousness) in spite of opposition from the religious establishment. Christian beliefs were spreading largely among Jews, and Christianity was a group within Judaism. These Jews came together to follow the word of God.

Early Christians were called Jewish Christians because their membership consisted largely of Jews who had joined them and followed their beliefs and teachings. They believed Jesus was a prophet who had tried to make people more aware of the intent of the Pentateuch and had tried to intensify the application of its laws. The Pentateuch was of great importance to them and they kept its laws, keeping the sabbath and performing circumcision.


As Jews had in any case to follow and live according to the Pentateuch's laws, what were Jews and Jewish Christians arguing about?

The laws of the Pentateuch have to be followed and applied by Jews as a matter of law in their daily lives. However, it was such laws of behaviour and such social system laws which the rich simply did not want to apply and we saw above that they, the rich and powerful, had had the application of these benevolent laws bypassed {6-9}. Jesus tried to reverse this situation and to have such laws applied by people in their everyday lives.


Jesus taught that if the rich wish to be rewarded by God they need to follow all the commandments and the social laws of the Pentateuch. {1}

Jesus said that 'good deeds' by themselves are not enough to gain eternal life. Whoever keeps the commandments enters eternal life. To be a 'good person' and enter eternal life one has to keep the commandments. {1}

Matthew's gospel records Jesus making a specific point which applies in general. Those who are rich and powerful and who are not observing the important social laws, suffer and will suffer the unavoidable consequences as a result. {1}


So Jewish Christians believed in the laws of the Pentateuch and struggled for the application of these laws in daily life, struggling against an oppressive establishment which argued against and did not want to follow the social laws.


Paul's Ideology

Paul was Jewish and persecuted the Christians who were renewing their knowledge of the laws and the application of the laws in their daily lives. So he was acting on the side of, that is for, the oppressive establishment.

He was unsuccessful in this as Jewish Christianity spread and continued to spread.

He then said that he had had a 'vision' and called himself a Christian but he preached not for but against the social laws and against the social system of the Pentateuch. He preached against material independence, against social security, against freedom from oppression and exploitation.

Look again at the social laws and system of the Pentateuch <11> and you will see how the laws of the Pentateuch ensure freedom and material independence and provide a good life of high quality here and now, backed by effective social security. No one may oppress or exploit another and all are equal, as a matter of law.

It is these laws of behaviour, it is these social laws and this social system which Paul opposed and he then attempted to stop people from keeping these laws.

Paul's letters (epistles) are the oldest part of the New Testament, probably written about 50 AD, some considerable time after the death of Jesus <12>. What stands out is that no one before Paul wrote such letters and that no one did so afterwards.

Paul wrote {2} that
'the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression',
saying that the God-given laws of Moses (in the Pentateuch) result in punishment for those who break the law and that a law that does not exist cannot be broken. {1}

Laws protect people when those who break them are punished. So Paul is saying that there would be no punishment if the laws were abolished, implying that antisocial activities can be allowed to take place without restraint.


Astonishingly and without good reason he states that those in authority rule by 'divine right', that whatever they do is justified because in his opinion they act on God's behalf. Whatever those in authority do or want is called 'good' by Paul and those who resist or oppose them do 'evil' and will be punished. Paul wants all to obey those in authority and to be obedient, to pay taxes and revenues, to respect and honour those in authority. {1}

He is arguing that one must fear and obey those in authority and do for them and give them all they ask, without regard to how selfish, corrupt, inhuman, vicious, murdering or evil they may be. {1}


What Paul is saying and putting forward is neither God's word nor is it what Jesus taught. Under the disguise of a religious sermon Paul is spreading political propaganda. Paul is preaching the political ideology of an oppressive establishment which wanted to be able to oppress so as to exploit without hindrance. He is preaching against observance of laws which ensure freedom, independence and equality. And he gives his opinions an authority which they would not otherwise have had by means of a self-proclaimed vision. {1}


So Paul preached against material independence, against social security, against freedom from oppression and exploitation. What he preached was the political ideology of an oppressive establishment.

This brought him into conflict with Jewish Christians and with the mostly Jewish Christian communities and he was unsuccessful in changing their beliefs and practices. He then concentrated on gaining converts from gentiles (people who are not Jewish) who presumably knew nothing or little about the laws of the Pentateuch and who would thus be more likely to follow his teachings without arguing about its content.

Paul's teachings were accepted to a considerable extent. The Gentile Christians' stories about the beginning of Christianity differ from those of the Jewish Christians and it is the versions of the Gentile Christians which were included in the Christian Canon and became official doctrine.


Paul's letters (epistles) were written about 50 AD. The Gospels were written about 70-100 AD and as a whole relate to the life and death of Jesus. Matthew's was written first, then Mark's, then Luke's. Luke also wrote The Acts.


Matthew's Record (Gospels)

Matthew's gospel was the first to be written. It appears that Matthew wrote his Gospel to counter Paul's distortions, recording what Jesus had actually been preaching. It is closest to the events and so perhaps it is not surprising that it has always been the most popular and revered of the gospels.

Matthew struggled to put the record straight, struggled to record what Jesus actually taught. Throughout the ages, Christians of goodwill chose intuitively to interpret Paul's statements about those in authority as meaning that
'the authority of those in authority only comes from God to the extent to which they themselves live according to and apply the Ten Commandments, the social laws and the social system laws' and that only those can 'love one another' who comply with all these laws. {1}

Matthew's Gospel was later followed by Mark's and this in turn was followed by Luke's gospel. The later authors were apparently aware of and knew the earlier gospels which seems confirmed by the successive changes which were made which changed the record of what Jesus taught and of the meaning of the stories and of the arguments. {1} <13>


Matthew's record was subtly changed in later gospels. Successive changes, one by one, changed meaning and intent further and further away from what is recorded in Matthew's gospel. {1}

Further and further away from Matthew's clear record and statement about what Jesus taught. Obscuring and confusing that which Jesus taught, so as to weaken arguments against Paul's distortions. {1}


So what happened was:

Jesus taught that all the laws had to be kept, that belief and practice included and had to include the Ten Commandments, the social laws and the social system of the Pentateuch.

Paul, however, acted on behalf of the rich and powerful when he tried to convince people that those in authority were God's representatives on earth and that the social laws did not have to be kept.

Paul's letter to the 'Romans' was written before the gospels. Matthew's later gospel records what Jesus actually taught and clearly makes the point that Paul was trying to subvert and turn upside down that which Jesus taught. As Matthew records what Jesus taught, this outweighs and overrides what Paul said.

Those who later favoured Paul's pro-establishment ideology could not challenge Matthew's record. Hence Matthew's gospel was subtly changed in later gospels, in an attempt to distort and hide that which Jesus had taught so as to weaken arguments against Paul's ideology.


Here also we see the establishment engaged in abrogating, in effect in annulling <14>, the benevolent social laws of the Pentateuch.

The establishment's version became accepted as official Christian doctrine and apparently it is this which tends to be taught today.


Christian Canon

Outstanding is that the contemporaneously written <15>, agreed and finalised Christian Canon and Jewish Talmud were shaped by, and independently record, the same confrontations and struggle and sequence of events. The Talmud was written contemporaneously with the gospels, starting in the first century AD. And both the Talmud and the Christian Canon were completed and agreed, canonified and frozen, at about the same time, roughly four-hundred years later. The agreement between Christian and Jewish writings is so complete that we are now reasonably certain about the main course of events. {1}


The Christian Canon continued to be compiled till it was approved by the Christian establishments and so presumably biased towards what the establishment wanted included or excluded, wanted said or unsaid. What became the Christian Canon, meaning by this the 'agreed' version of events and teachings, took about four hundred years before it was 'agreed' {5}.

It apparently took about four hundred years for written material and for people's memories to be changed, edited and modified, to conform to the establishment point of view. If it had just been a matter of recording facts, of recording the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth (the truth, nothing left out and nothing added), it would not have taken so long. After ten or so generations people would be regarding as factual that which they were being told was factual.


A similar if not identical process took place within Judaism during roughly the same period of time and here also the relevant social laws were side-tracked and bypassed. It does seem more than a coincidence that it took roughly the same period of time for Christianity and Judaism to contemporaneously finalise the Christian Canon and the Jewish Talmud, respectively.

Both the Talmud and the Canon tell of an outsider, of an outside establishment orientated ideology, corrupting what was being taught and undermining what people believed, corrupting and undermining what Jesus had taught.

In both religions the establishment versions became accepted as official doctrine.


Liberation Theology's 'Two Types of Christianity'

We can now understand much more clearly what Liberation Theology's teachings have been saying. As said already:

Liberation theologians maintain that Christian belief and practice ranges along a continuous scale between two forms, one at each end. At one end of this scale is the kind which in effect serves the establishment, that is those in authority such as a government, and this kind teaches that reward will be a better life in a life to come. Liberation theologians advocate the second kind of Christianity, at the other end of the scale. They emphasise compassion and leadership in the struggle against oppressors, in the struggle for a better life here and now in this life. {5}

They (liberation theologists) are arguing that there are two kinds of Christianity. They say that there is the kind of Christianity that serves the rulers and their establishment and thus those who oppress and exploit. They say that there is also another kind of Christianity which bases its belief and practice on compassion for the poor and according to Christian texts which side with the poor against the rich, with the poor against the oppressor. {5}

Manfred Davidmann concluded that Christianity is struggling forward towards its roots in response to the social and economic problems of global humanity at the present time. Towards what Jesus taught, towards the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch. {5, 1}



Islam


Arab Life at the Time of Mohammed    {15} <16>

Arabs were mainly nomads living in the central and northern Arabian peninsula. Some of them had settled around the oases. There was no written code of laws, life was harsh and brutal.

The only restraint on an individual was the fear of vengeance. All members of a community (family, clan or tribe) were held responsible for the acts of any one of them. There was no wrong in killing someone not a member of one's tribe, but it would be unwise to do so if the victim's tribe was strong. Survival depended on the strength of one's tribe.

But no such restraints applied to communal acts of violence. The tribes were constantly at war with each other, except for four months of truce every year, with loot (material and human) apparently the key objective of intertribal skirmishes and warfare. Women and children captured in tribal warfare who were not ransomed became tribal slaves and could be bought and sold.

Mohammed is born into this kind of society of illiterate desert Arabs and teaches them (reveals to them) what God has commanded him to recite to his fellow Arabs.


Mohammed Taught

The Prophet Mohammed struggled throughout his preaching life against the powerful Meccan family which dominated Mecca, against the Quraysh. They first opposed and then persecuted him and his followers for ten years, and then he fought them for another ten years till he won. Shortly after that he died. {15}

At first Mohammed preached the word of God in this environment for roughly ten years. A small number believed, mostly of the poorer classes. The followers he drew were the rejected, the disadvantaged, the weak and the oppressed - slaves, women and minority tribes. {13-15}

His message to the Meccans was that they should abandon all forms of idolatry and devote themselves to following the directions of the one all-seeing and almighty but compassionate God, that it was necessary for people to be humble and grateful towards God and to worship Him, and the obligation of generosity and respect for the rights of the poor and the defenceless. {12}



Mohammed teaches that God's benevolent social laws and system have to be applied by people in their daily life, that those who in the past erred from God's way are in grave error {20}. The quotations from the Koran which follow speak for themselves.


The book (al-kitab, the Pentateuch) came down (tanzil) from God, the mighty, the wise-one.
The arabic phrase for the Holy Koran is 'al-Koran'. The Pentateuch (the Five Books of Moses) is 'al-kitab', a religious book is 'mushaf'. <17>
{40:002, 45:002, 46:002}

We gave Moses guidance (al-huda)
huda: guidance or guide.
and gave the book (al-kitab, the Pentateuch) to the Children of Israel to inherit.
A guide (huda) and a reminder (warning) to people who understand.
To those who understand its commandments (message), it is a guide (about what is 'good', about what to do) and a warning (about what is evil, about what not to do).
{40:053-54}

We gave the Book (al-kitab, Pentateuch) to Moses, but disputes arose about it. ...
They are in serious doubt (about the belief).
{41:045}

We gave the book (al-kitab, the Pentateuch) to the Children of Israel
and gave them the knowledge and prophethood.
We provided them with good things and preferred them above (all) people;
{45:016}

We proved the commandments (bayyinat amr) to them beyond doubt:
Literal: We gave them clear proofs (indisputable evidence) of commandments.
but after the knowledge had come to them,
greed caused them to disagree among themselves.
Greed: intense and selfish desire for wealth or power.
{45:017}

The social laws and the social system of the Pentateuch have to be followed and applied by Jews as a matter of law in their daily lives.

However, it was these laws of behaviour and the social system laws {3} which the Jewish ruling elite simply did not want to apply and they, the rich and powerful, had the application of the laws changed to suit themselves {8-9}.


And when Jesus came with the clear proofs (the indisputable evidence) (al-bayyinat), he said:
I have come to you with wisdom
to clarify some of what you are differing about.
Fear God and obey (God).
God is my Lord and your Lord: therefore serve (follow) Him. That is the right way (sirat mustakim).
But the factions among them differed.
{43:063-65}

The social laws and the social system laws of the Pentateuch had been bypassed or abrogated by the Jewish ruling elite, by the rich and powerful.

Jesus tried to reverse this situation and to have these laws again applied by people in their everyday lives. {1}

But the ruling elite, backed by the Christian establishment, later modified Jesus' teachings (Christian beliefs) from within. {1}


(To Mohammed:) Say (to them): "I am only a mortal like you;
It has come to me (yuhi) that there is only one God.
So take the right way to Him, and ask His forgiveness."
Literal: So 'you go in the right way' and ... (istakimu)
And woe to those who serve associates (mushrekin) beside Him;
Mushrekin (associates): Guides, masters, overlords or supreme beings with whom a person associates (to which a person attributes) a god-like knowledge or authority. That which or those whom you consider to be like God, that or those whose orders you obey as if they came from God.
{41:006}

And now We have set you on the right way of our commandment (sharia amr),
so follow it, and do not follow the desires of ignorant people (those who do not have that knowledge)
for they cannot shield you from God.
{45:018}



And so Mohammed taught {20} that:

God gave the Pentateuch to Moses but disputes arose about it (among the Jews) because of greed.

When Jesus came clearly stating the law and asked people to follow it, again factions differed.

Mohammed then continues, saying: 'It is revealed to me there is only one God, so take the right way to Him.'



Preaching the obligation of generosity and respect for the rights of the poor and the defenceless, soon aroused the opposition of the Meccan elite and Mohammed's followers were persecuted. {15}

Mohammed was forming a movement which all who were deprived could join. The traditional Arab tribe, and loyalty, were based on family, on blood relationships, and thus limited in size. Opposition may well have developed also from the fear that in time Mohammed's movement might unseat the ruling family, their establishment, their tribe. {15}

So here also we see the two opposed sides. On the one hand Mohammed preaching the words of benevolent and caring God (Allah), on the other side a self-serving ruling elite.


Traditions tell that during and almost immediately after the death of Mohammed his teachings of revelations from benevolent Allah who cared deeply about peoples' welfare and well-being, were collected and recorded by Zaid bin Thabit. {17-18}

Traditions also tell that about fifteen years later Caliph Uthman had an official text prepared which included Zaid bin Thabit's, that he ordered the compilers to change Zaid bin Thabit's manuscripts into reflecting 'the voice of' (the opinions of) the ruling elite, that is to make sure that their compilation stated the ruling elite's point of view. The same tradition states that Caliph Uthman then distributed copies of this ruling elite's compilation (Uthman's Koran) and ordered all other versions to be destroyed. {17-18}.


This is how Maxime Rodinson {12} describes what happened after the death of Mohammed:
At the head of the Arab empire was the family of Quraysh which had been the most determined in its opposition to the Prophet.
It was as if Mohammed had worked and preached, all for the greater glory and profit of his enemies.


It took about 300 years after the death of Mohammed before the 'reading' of the Koran was finally fixed. {17}

Throughout almost the whole of Mohammed's life as Prophet he struggled against the powerful Meccan family which dominated Mecca, against the Quraysh {15}. And after Mohammed died, the ruling elite took over and here also appears to have edited out from observance God's (Allah's) benevolent social laws and system.


Since then there has been continuous confrontation and struggle between secular and religious figureheads and hierarchies, between state (rulers, government) and religious authorities (clerics, religious hierarchy, religion). {17}:

About what should and should not be done, about what must and must not be done, about who should be making these and similar decisions.

About the personal role, authority, pay, standard of living and quality of life of the decision-takers.

With each attempting to make the other serve its own ends.

It is this which shaped Muslim belief and practice to this day and it underlies the conflicts and confrontations we see today between Muslim rulers and Muslim clerics, between 'secular government' and 'rule by religious clerics'.

To me it seems that it also underlies the impoverished condition in some Muslim countries of those parts of their populations which are deprived, exploited, oppressed. {15-21}.



Findings

This work brings together Manfred Davidmann's ground-breaking discoveries from previously published separate major investigations <18> into the history of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The complete sequence of events covering the three religions is shown here for the first time, is clear and to the point.


We saw the history of the two main confrontations between the Jewish rulers ('state', government, establishment) and their people, from the recording of the Pentateuch to the birth of Christianity. This struggle was about position, influence and control over communities, about changing God-given benevolent rules of behaviour so that people could be oppressed and exploited. It changed Judaism, determined the fate of the Jewish people and gave rise to Christianity.


We also saw that Jesus taught that all the laws had to be kept, that belief and practice included and had to include the Ten Commandments, the social laws and the social system of the Pentateuch. Paul, however, acted on behalf of the rich and powerful when he tried to convince people that those in authority were God's representatives on earth and that the social laws did not have to be kept.

Paul's letter to the 'Romans' was written before the gospels. Matthew's later gospel records what Jesus actually taught and clearly makes the point that Paul was trying to subvert that which Jesus taught. As Matthew records what Jesus taught, this outweighs and overrides what Paul said. Those who later favoured Paul's pro-establishment ideology could not challenge Matthew's record. Hence Matthew's gospel was subtly changed in later gospels.

Here also we saw the establishment engaged in abrogating, in effect in annulling <14>, the benevolent social laws of the Pentateuch. The establishment's version became accepted as official Christian doctrine and apparently it is this which tends to be taught today.


According to Liberation theologists, there are two kinds of Christianity. There is the kind of Christianity that serves the rulers and their establishment and thus those who oppress and exploit. And they say that there is also another kind of Christianity which bases its belief and practice on compassion for the poor and according to Christian texts which side with the poor against the rich, with the poor against the oppressor. {5}

Manfred Davidmann concluded that Christianity is struggling forward towards its roots in response to the social and economic problems of global humanity at the present time. Towards what Jesus taught, towards the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch. {5, 1}


Considering Islam, we saw that throughout almost the whole of Mohammed's life as Prophet he struggled against the powerful Meccan family which dominated Mecca, against the Quraysh {15}. And after Mohammed died, the ruling elite took over. We saw that hadiths (traditions) recorded that on the one hand we have the word of benevolent Allah as taught by Mohammed that people (believers) should have a good life of high quality in this life, but that on the other hand is the ruling elite's opposing viewpoint that people should be obedient and serve willingly without questioning their condition {18}. Since then there has been continuous confrontation and struggle between secular and religious figureheads and hierarchies, between state (rulers, government) and religious authorities (clerics, religious hierarchy, religion) {17} with each attempting to make the other serve its own ends.

It is this which shaped Muslim belief and practice to this day and it underlies the conflicts and confrontations we see today between Muslim rulers and Muslim clerics, between 'secular government' and 'rule by religious clerics'.

To me it seems that it also underlies the impoverished condition in some Muslim countries of those parts of their populations which are deprived, exploited, oppressed. {15-21}.


Conclusions

Underlying the Pentateuch's benevolent and egalitarian legislation are its social laws and social system, including the Ten Commandments and laws protecting the people by limiting the behaviour of their rulers.

The Jewish people undertook to live accordingly, to apply all of these in their daily lives. But their own rulers (kings, state, government, establishment) negated the application of these rules of behaviour and the people were oppressed and exploited. Rabbinical Judaism (today's Judaism) propagates the establishment's revisionist version of Jewish belief and practice. {8}

Jesus taught that all the Pentateuch's laws had to be kept, that belief and practice had to include them. Here again we saw that the establishment in effect negated the application of these benevolent rules of behaviour, that the Christian establishment's version became accepted and that the people were once again exposed to oppression and exploitation.

Mohammed knew about the events of the past and said so, calling for a return to following the ancient benevolent God-given social legislation. This knowledge may have been lost and since then there has been continuous confrontation and struggle between secular and religious figureheads and hierarchies, between state (rulers, government) and religious authorities (clerics, religious hierarchy, religion) {17}.



Relevant Current and Associated Works
Manfred Davidmann   (www.solhaam.org)

Relevant current and associated reports by Manfred Davidmann:

To explore a reports new findings or insights, proposals or recommendations, download the report and read its Introduction, Summary, Contents list, Conclusions and Recommendations. The reports are comprehensive and usually some years ahead of current knowledge at the time of publication.

     
     
Title   Description
     
ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM    Proves by methods of biblical archaeology what Jesus really taught, how Paul changed what Jesus had taught, how this became Christianity's official doctrine. Outstanding are sections on Paul and the Gospels, on concurrent corresponding changes in Judaism.
      
How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works    Describes clearly what happens while sleeping, role of dreaming, meaning of dreams. Functioning of the two halves of the human brain is related to the autonomic nervous and the immune systems. Shows how human behaviour is affected by primitive instincts.
      
The God-given Human Rights, Social Laws and Social System    Comprehensive statement of the God-given human rights which underlie all freedom, liberty and independence. They are the foundation of the main religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and they underlie and determine a good life of high quality.
      
The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil    Shows that there is no conflict, no contradiction, no divergence, only awe-inspiring agreement, between what is recorded in Genesis and what we know about the evolution of human beings. And Genesis defines good and evil, pointing to the root of evil.
      
Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity    Moral and immoral behaviour and unavoidable consequences. Summarises corresponding present social problems. Describes the Pentateuch's social laws and social system for achieving a good life of high quality.
      
Meaning and Significance of the Names of God in Genesis    This short report describes the meaning and significance of the names of God which are used in Genesis. These are of the greatest importance for understanding the meaning of the text of the Bible.
      
Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty    Genesis on consequences of gaining and misusing power over others. Summarises corresponding present social problems. Describes the Pentateuch's social laws and social system for achieving and keeping liberty and a good life of high quality.
      
Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community    This report investigates casual sex and its effects on individuals, family and community. It examines the role of the family in bringing up children and relates dominance and confrontation within the family to that in the working environment.
      
Social Concept (Policies) of the Russian Orthodox Church
(Church and State)
   Reviews the Russian Orthodox Church's social and church-state policies. The church is shown to be quoting out of context from Paul's letter to the Romans, in relation to what seems to be a central core teaching on Christian church-state relationships.
      
Social Policies (Doctrine) of the Roman Catholic Church: An Evaluation
(Church and State)
   The essential and fundamental social doctrines are evaluated in plain and meaningful language. About important principles of faith in relation to globalisation and benevolent church-state-people policies. Aims of the Church's doctrines and the consequences for Catholics. Challenging decisions are needed.
      
LIBERATION THEOLOGY: Basis - Past - Present - Future    Discusses Christianity's origins using Christian and Jewish sources. Liberation theologians emphasise compassion and leadership in the struggle for a better life. Shows that one can analyse effectively how the Christian Canon developed.
      
Judaism, Christianity and Islam
(Church and State)
   Shows that underlying Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the Pentateuch's benevolent and egalitarian social laws and social system. Reveals for each religion the controversies and conflicts between church and state, between beliefs and practice.
      
Religion, Government and Education
(Church and State)
   Illustrates conflicting aims and interests of state and church with reference to teaching evolution (creationism) and teaching immorality (state-condoned promiscuity). Relative authority of Bible, common law, case law, religious leaderships, judges.
      
Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship    Major review and analysis of the social laws and social system of the Torah and of the Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship. Also reviews the role of religion and of Judaism under modern conditions.
      
History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees    Major review and analysis of Jewish history, of King Solomon's reign and of the Maccabean dynasty, locating the causes of subsequent defeat of the people and loss of country. Covers Jewish belief and practice, social conditions and government.
      
At the Time of Jesus,
This is What Actually Happened in Israel:
The Truth about Hillel and his Times
   Factual conclusive document describing what happened at the time of Jesus to Jewish belief and practice, based on research into texts published close to the events. A fully documented record of previously undiscovered material in the Talmud about Hillel.
      
One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever    Document describing the struggles within Judaism which accompanied the birth of Rabbinical Judaism, how people felt about what was happening, how the Talmud recorded events and what would have to be done to reverse the trend of events.
      
Jewish Belief and Practice    Provides the required background knowledge of the essential core of Jewish belief and practice for drawing the only possible conclusion that the procedure called 'Prosbul' is contrary to the laws and intent of the Torah. The Prosbul is then annulled.
      
Causes of Antisemitism    Shows that there are two separate root causes of antisemitism. One cause can be remedied by increasing peoples' awareness, the other is under the control of the Jewish people and can be remedied from within.
      
The Right to the Land of Israel    This report proves that the right to the land in which one lives, that is the strength and success of a people, depends on how people behave towards each other. This applies to all. The history of the Jewish people provides a convincing example.
      
Prophet Mohammed's Struggle for a Better Life for All    Mohammed's struggle for recognition of his mission and message against the powerful Meccan ruling elite. They opposed and then persecuted him and his followers for ten years, following which he fought them for ten years till he won and then he died.
      
Text, Language, Dialect and Interpretation of the Koran    How written Arabic language developed from the time of Mohammed and how the Koran was assembled. How recorded letters and symbols were used to state the meaning of words. Compares 'readings' and interpretations.
      
The Divine Right to Rule    The struggle for power and control over the Muslim community after Mohammed died and how Muslim belief and practice evolved under the caliphs. These events and struggles formed Sunnism and Shiism, shaped the Koran and Muslim belief and practice.
      
Compiling the Koran:
Hadiths (Traditions) State the Underlying Reality
   Zaid bin Thabit compiled the Koran, Caliph Uthman had an official version prepared. Mohammed taught that people (believers) should have a good life, the ruling elite considered that people should serve willingly.
      
Uthman's Rearrangement of the Chronological (as revealed) Koran's Chapters    Chapters (suras) marked by 'abbreviated letters' show how the sequence of the Koran's chapters was changed. The effects of the changes on the record of Mohammed's preaching and teaching are described as are the doctrines of 'Abrogation' and 'Consensus'.
      
Prophet Mohammed's Word of Allah and the Voice of the Ruling Elite    Mohammed's social teachings are stated from chapters (suras) singled out by 'Abbreviated Letters', statements of revelation from compassionate and caring Allah. It seems that some self-seeking doctrines were added later by the ruling elite of that time.
      
Muslims and Jews    Includes a comprehensive summary table of the struggles of the Muslims while Mohammed was alive, including their conflicts with the Jewish Medinan clans. The conclusions are directly relevant to understanding present tensions and conflicts within Islam.
      
Work and Pay: Summary    Concise summary review of whole subject of work and pay, in clear language. Covers pay, incomes and differentials and the interests and requirements of owners and employers, of the individual and his family, and of the community.
      
Exporting and Importing of Employment and Unemployment    Discusses exporting and importing of employment and unemployment, underlying principles, effect of trade, how to reduce unemployment, social costs of unemployment, community objectives, support for enterprises, socially irresponsible enterprise behaviour.
      
Corrupted Economics and Misleading Experts    Shows how 'Economics' is used to misinform and mislead the general public. Clearly states underlying considerations of specific important economic relationships and comments on misleading political interpretations and on role of independent experts.
      
Directing and Managing Change    How to plan ahead, find best strategies, decide and implement, agree targets and objectives, monitor and control progress, evaluate performance, carry out appraisal and target-setting interviews. Describes proved, practical and effective techniques.
      
Style of Management and Leadership    Major review and analysis of the style of management and its effect on management effectiveness, decision taking and standard of living. Measures of style of management and government. Overcoming problems of size.
      
Motivation Summary    Reviews and summarises past work in Motivation. Provides a clear definition of 'motivation', of the factors which motivate and of what people are striving to achieve.
      
Using Words to Communicate Effectively    Shows how to communicate more effectively, covering aspects of thinking, writing, speaking and listening as well as formal and informal communications. Consists of guidelines found useful by university students and practising middle and senior managers.


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Notes <..>

< 1>     Pentateuch, part of the Bible. Also called 'The Five Books of Moses' (namely Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy). Also called 'Torah'.
     
< 2>   Freedom: The right and power to act, speak, or think freely.
Liberty: The state of being free from oppression or imprisonment.
Independence: Self governing and not depending on another for livelihood or subsistence.
     
< 3>   For a more comprehensive and more detailed listing of the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch, see {3}
     
< 4>   For a full listing of the Ten Commandments, in biblical and plain English, see Appendix 5 of {6}. For a good discussion of its provisions see {6}.
     
< 5>   A country's wealth includes productive assets and capital, including land, enterprise and corporation ownership, property, bank deposits and reserves.
     
< 6>   At the time the Pentateuch was written, the sharing out of assets was to be updated after every 49 years. At present, updating at regular intervals of between three and not more than five calendar years is more appropriate.
     
< 7>   'Net assets' is the amount of money which would be left for distributing among the owners if everything belonging to an enterprise were sold and all its debts paid.
     
< 8>   For a comprehensive detailed account of events, generation by generation, see {7}.
     
< 9>   Establishment-orientated scholars, the 'experts' of the day. See {22} for a contemporary example.
     
<10>   In {8} see 'The Five Pairs (Zugot)' which includes Figure 2 'Names of the Pairs' and Figure 3 'Laying-on of Hands'.
     
<11>   See section on 'Pentateuch' and {3}
     
<12>   In {1} see 'Paul'.
     
<13>   In {1} see 'Gospels'.
     
<14>   Abrogate: Doing away with (a law or agreement).
Annul: Declaring (a law or other legal contract) invalid.
     
<15>   Contemporaneous: At the same time, of the same period, contemporary.
     
<16>   See {15} Section: 'Arab Life and Living at the Time of Mohammed' for sources (references) and more comprehensive information.
     
<17>   In {18} see particularly 'Hadith 2: How Caliph Uthman Ordered the Compilation of an Official Koran Text' which clearly shows the meaning of these terms. And see the other relevant Koranic verses in {20}.
     
<18>   See {1, 6-9, 15-21, 5}


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References {..} and Links  (www.solhaam.org)

{ 1}    ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM
      
{ 2}    Romans 4, 15
      
{ 3}    The God-given Human Rights, Social Laws and Social System
      
{ 4}    Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community
      
{ 5}    LIBERATION THEOLOGY: Basis - Past - Present - Future
      
{ 6}    Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship
      
{ 7}    History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees
      
{ 8}    At the Time of Jesus,
This is What Actually Happened in Israel:
The Truth about Hillel and his Times
      
{ 9}    One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever
      
{10}    The Right to the Land of Israel
      
{11}    Pentateuch:
Deuteronomy l7, 14-20.
      
{12}
   Muhammad
Maxime Rodinson
Tauris Parke Paperbacks
1971, 2002
      
{13}
   Introduction to the Qur'an
Richard Bell
Edinburgh University Press, 1958
      
{14}
   Tune into the "new conscience of Islam"
Sophie Boukhari interviewing Abdou Filali-Ansari
Unesco Courier, November 2001
      
{15}    Prophet Mohammed's Struggle for a Better Life for All
      
{16}    Text, Language, Dialect and Interpretation of the Koran
      
{17}    The Divine Right to Rule
      
{18}    Compiling the Koran:
Hadiths (Traditions) State the Underlying Reality
      
{19}    Uthman's Rearrangement of the Chronological (as revealed) Koran's Chapters
      
{20}    Prophet Mohammed's Word of Allah and the Voice of the Ruling Elite
      
{21}    Muslims and Jews
      
{22}    Corrupted Economics and Misleading Experts


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Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview


The Site Overview page has links to all individual Subject Index Pages which between them list the works by Manfred Davidmann which are available on the Internet, with short descriptions and links for downloading.

To see the Site Overview page, click Overview

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Copyright    ©    2004    Manfred Davidmann
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History
26/11/04 To Website