Using Words to Communicate Effectively
by Manfred Davidmann
Shows how to communicate more effectively, covering aspects of thinking, writing, speaking and listening as well as formal and informal communications.
Consists of guidelines found useful by university students and practising middle and senior managers.
Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview
COMMUNICATING WITH WORDS
Communication is the transmission of meaning to others.
Important is that 'meaning' is transferred. In other words, it is important the other persons understand what we want them to understand, that they understand the intended meaning.
More precisely, purposeful communication is the transmission of intended meaning to others.
Hence for effective communication the sender must determine the purpose of the communication and use words which have the same meaning for sender and receiver.
MEANING OF WORDS
The scientific study of meaning is called Semantics.
WORDS AND LABELS
Words are labels. Labels are arbitrary.
Most common cause of misunderstanding arises from assuming that the word (a label) is the object. Two people can then be arguing about a concept, referring to it by using the same word, arguing because this word means something different to each of them.
So to be meaningful, words must establish the same thought (reference) in both the sender and receiver of a communication.
Words vary considerably as regards their value for communication. They differ in their level of abstraction. The greater the level of abstraction, the less meaning do they have.
LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION
I listed the word 'truth' as an example of a label for a meaningless abstraction. Surely 'truth' ought to be more than a meaningless value judgement, so let us look at this in more detail.
Consider two media reports of a current event. Each reports the same event, each apparently telling the truth, each report giving its viewers different impressions of what actually happened.
How come? Can there be more than one truth?
Such reports may tell only part of what happened, may report only what seems relevant to the reporter, may then be selecting what seems to support the particular viewpoint of those who prepared the report.
Compare these 'truths' with that demanded from a witness in a court of law: 'The truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.'
Which means that what is required in a court of law is the truth with nothing taken away and nothing added.
If we agree on this as a definition, then the word 'truth' has become more meaningful.
FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONS
A distinction needs to be made between formal and informal communications. Formal communication implies that a record is kept, that what has been said or written can be attributed to its originator.
On the whole, written communications are formal. But statements may be qualified by phrases such as 'preliminary thoughts are ...'.
Oral (spoken) communication consists of direct or transmitted speech between two or more people. Oral communications are more likely to be misinterpreted than written ones, were regarded as informal but are now often recorded and treated as formal. Missing from such recordings is the body language consisting of facial expressions and gestures.
Consider an informal chat by telephone getting comments on matters of joint concern before producing a final report. Important is the possibility of a two-way flow of information, of immediate feedback, of a frank unreserved exchange of information, opinions and ideas.
The informal nature of such exploratory conversations is often ignored. People's preliminary thoughts can then be quoted against them as if they had been fully considered.
Although an answering (recording) machine ought to bleep at regular intervals while recording, conversations can be recorded in different ways by one person without the other being aware of this.
Hence one needs to make sure the other person is aware of the informal nature of the conversation. In other words, that the other person knows the conversation is not to be recorded and that the information is to be regarded as confidential until the matter has been fully considered.
There are, however, many formal oral communications, such as selection, grievance or appraisal interviews, or when negotiating. Characteristic is that a record is kept by those participating.
Rumours are hearsay. One person tells the next who tells another, and so on. But there are personal barriers as people tend to keep back, elaborate or enhance information in accordance with their likes and dislikes. Hence information tends to change in emphasis and content as it is passed from person to person. This makes rumours so unreliable a source of information.
Effective communication, however, depends also on attentive listening.
Do not jump to conclusions before hearing what the other person has to say, and do not interrupt.
Interrupting prevents effective and meaningful communication, can prevent the speaker from making a valid point. Think how you would feel if you were interrupted just before making your key point.
It is up to the sender (originator) of the communication to use words which have the same meaning also for the receiver, for the listener. To ensure that you have understood the communication (message) correctly, you can repeat it in your own words to the other person.
For example, after being told how to get to a particular street one can ask "You mean, take the second street on the left?". Answers like "Yes, it is" or "Take the third on the left" confirm or improve our understanding of what we had been told.
And so, for effective listening:
LETTERS AND REPORTS
TRAPS TO AVOID
RELEVANT SUBJECT INDEX PAGES
Other Subjects; Other Publications
The Site Overview page has links to all individual Subject Index Pages which between them list the works by Manfred Davidmann which are available on the Internet, with short descriptions and links for downloading.
To see the Site Overview page, click Overview
Copyright © Manfred Davidmann 1998, 2006